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Table 2 Results of nested univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multivariate analyses of covariance (MANCOVA) examining life-history and body shape variation of Gambusia spp. from four different clades, comparing sulfidic springs versus non-sulfidic habitats. The site(clade × H2S)-term was designated a random effect in all models. F-ratios in the MANCOVAs were approximated using Wilks’ values, partial variance was estimated using Wilks’ partial η 2, and terms with a partial variance at least half as strong as the strongest effect are given in bold for each model. Asterisks indicate terms that were tested using the mixed-model approach (see text)

From: Extremophile Poeciliidae: multivariate insights into the complexity of speciation along replicated ecological gradients

Effect F df P Partial variance Relative variance
(a) SL (ANOVA)
Sex 817.5 1, 708 < 0.001 0.127 0.516
Clade 5.0 3, 6 0.044 0.246 1.000
H2S 2.7 1, 6 0.15 0.052 0.211
Site(Clade × H 2 S) 17.2 6, 708 < 0.001 0.127 0.516
Sex × Clade 5.8 3, 708 0.001 0.024 0.098
Sex × H2S 8.5 1, 708 0.004 0.012 0.049
Sex × Clade × H2S 30.5 3, 708 < 0.001 0.114 0.463
(b) Adult life histories (MANCOVA)
SL 2211.5 3, 702 < 0.001 0.904 1.000
Sex 513.3 3, 702 < 0.001 0.687 0.760
Clade* 41.3 6, 1342 < 0.001 0.147 0.163
H2S* 3.4 2, 1121 0.0342 0.161 0.178
Site(Clade × H2S) 17.8 18, 1986 < 0.001 0.132 0.146
Clade × H2S* 8.5 6, 1342 < 0.001 0.096 0.106
SL × Clade 1.5 9, 1708.6 0.007 0.011 0.012
Sex × Clade 4.1 9, 1708.6 < 0.001 0.017 0.019
Sex × H2S 15.5 3, 702 < 0.001 0.062 0.069
Sex × Clade × H2S 7.3 9, 1708.6 < 0.001 0.030 0.033
(c) Offspring-related life histories (MANCOVA)
SL 69.9 3, 395 < 0.001 0.347 0.569
Stage of Development 16.0 3, 395 < 0.001 0.108 0.177
Clade* 22.3 6, 934 < 0.001 0.297 0.488
H 2 S 54.6 2, 771 < 0.001 0.609 1.000
Site(Clade × H2S) 24.9 18, 1117.7 < 0.001 0.272 0.447
Clade × H2S* 5.2 6, 934 < 0.001 0.124 0.203
SL × Clade 5.4 9, 961.5 < 0.001 0.039 0.065
SL × H2S 3.4 3, 395 0.019 0.025 0.041
SL × Clade × H2S 2.0 9, 961.5 0.038 0.015 0.024
Stage × Clade 3.4 9, 961.5 0.0004 0.025 0.041
Stage × H2S 2.9 3, 395 0.034 0.022 0.036
Stage × Clade × H2S 2.4 9, 961.5 0.011 0.018 0.029
(d) Body shape (MANCOVA)
Centroid size 125.0 7, 898 < 0.001 0.512 0.651
Sex 129.8 7, 898 < 0.001 0.504 0.640
Clade* 226.8 18, 4227 < 0.001 0.787 1.000
H 2 S* 22.3 6, 2809 < 0.001 0.403 0.513
Site(Clade × H2S) 13.2 63, 5063.7 < 0.001 0.160 0.204
Clade × H2S* 19.4 18, 4227 < 0.001 0.297 0.378