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Table 1 Table of material and Genbank accession. Collectors references acronyms are Olivier Maurin (OM), Muthama Muasya (AMM), Sebsebe Demissew (SD), Pilar Catalán (PC), Ernesto Pérez-Collazos (EP). Genbank accessions in plain text are new to this study, accessions in bold were retrieved from

From: Diversification into novel habitats in the Africa clade of Dioscorea (Dioscoreaceae): erect habit and elephant’s foot tubers

Taxon Voucher (Museum) Distribution Habitat Habit rbcL matK trnL-F trnH-psbA PsaA-Ycf3 rpl32-trnL
Dioscorea brachybotrya Poepp. Rudall P. s.n (K) C. & S. Chile to Argentina At medium altitude up to the timber line, and at low altitude in interior valleys Shrub climber, 2 m in height AF307469 AY956482 KM878027 KR086979 KR087124 KR088291
Dioscorea brownii Schinz Grieve 53 (K) South Africa - KwaZulu-Natal Grassland Pachycaul slightly emerging with annual solitary stems reaching 1 m in height KR087028 KR086942 KR070855 KR086980 KR087125 KR088292
Dioscorea buchananii Benth. Bingham10290 (K) Tanzania, Angola, Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe, DRC Combretum thickets and at proximity of woody outcrop Twining wine with perennial tuber and stems up to 9 m long KR087029 KR086943 KR070856 KR086981 KR087126 KR088293
Dioscorea bulbifera L. OM3576 (BNRH) Native in Tropical and subtropical region from Africa, Asia and Australasia. Introduced elsewhere Forest and woodlands Twining wine with perennial tuber and stems up to 12 m long KR087030 KR086944 KR070857 KR086982 KR087127 KR088294
Dioscorea burchellii Baker AMM6650 (BOL) South Africa - Eastern Cape At medium to high Altitude in dense fynbos vegetation Tuberous perennial, shoot to 1 m height KR087032 KR086946 KR070859 KR086984 KR087129 KR088296
Dioscorea burchellii Baker AMM6704A (BOL) - - - KR087031 KR086945 KR070858 KR086983 KR087128 KR088295
Dioscorea chouardii Gaussen PC334 (JACA) Spain Limestone rock-crevices Tuberous perennial, shoot to 1 m height KM877855 KM877907 KR070860 KR086985 KR087130 KR088297
Dioscorea communis (L.) Caddick & Wilkin Chase536 (K) Europe, North African and temperate Asia Woodland and woodland hedges Herbaceous with climbing stem, up to 4 m in height KR087033 KR086947 KR070871 KR086996 KR087141 KR088308
Dioscorea cotinifolia Kunth AMM6112 (BOL) Mozambique, South Africa and Swaziland Open dry forest, forest margins, scrubby vegetation and rocky places Tuberous plant with vigorous annual twining stems reaching up to 10 m height KR087034 KR086948 KR070862 KR086987 KR087132 KR088299
Dioscorea cotinifolia Kunth AMM6158 (BOL) - - - KR087035 KR086949 KR070863 KR086988 KR087133 KR088300
Dioscorea cotinifolia Kunth OM1458 (BNRH) - - - KR087036 KR086950 KR070864 KR086989 KR087134 KR088301
Dioscorea dregeana (Kunth) T. Durand & Schinz AMM6104 (BOL) Mozambique and South Africa Forest, woodlands found among rocks and ravine Tuberous plants with annual to persistent stems reaching up to 12 m height KR087038 KR086952 KR070866 KR086991 KR087136 KR088303
Dioscorea dregeana (Kunth) T. Durand & Schinz AMM6166 (BOL) - - - KR087039 KR086953 KR070868 KR086993 KR087138 KR088305
Dioscorea dregeana (Kunth) T. Durand & Schinz OM1465 (BNRH) - - - JQ025042 JQ024957 KR070867 KR086992 KR087137 KR088304
Dioscorea dregeana (Kunth) T. Durand & Schinz OM2247 (BNRH) - - - KR087037 KR086951 KR070865 KR086990 KR087135 KR088302
Dioscorea dumetorum (Kunth) Pax OM2315 (BNRH) Sub-Saharan Africa, excluding parts of Southern Africa Forest and woodlands and along riverbanks, generally at low altitude Tuberous plants with annual to persistent stems reaching up to 5 m height KR087040 KR086954 KR070869 KR086994 KR087139 KR088306
Dioscorea dumetorum (Kunth) Pax OM3953 (BNRH) - - - KR087041 KR086955 KR070870 KR086995 KR087140 KR088307
Dioscorea elephantipes (L’Hér.) Engl. AMM5225 (BOL) Namibia, South Africa - All Capes provinces From Medium to high altitude, in thorny and succulent vegetation (e.g. Thickets) Pachycaul up to 80 cm in diameter, with shoot up to 1 m height KR087042 KR086956 KR070872 KR086997 KR087142 KR088309
Dioscorea elephantipes (L’Hér.) Engl. AMM5226a (BOL) - - - KR087043 KR086957 KR070873 KR086998 KR087143 KR088310
Dioscorea elephantipes (L’Hér.) Engl. AMM6713 (BOL) - - - KR087044 KR086958 KR070874 KR086999 KR087144 KR088311
Dioscorea galeottiana Kunth Telez13090 (MEXU) Centre America, Mexico Tropical Dry Forest Perennial tuber, climber AY904796 AY956499 KM878046 KR087000 KR087145 KR088312
Dioscorea gillettii Milne-Redh. SD7051 (ETH) Southern Ethiopia Dry woodland vegetation Perennial tuber with twining stems up to 1.5 m height KR087046 KR086960 KR070876 KR087002 KR087147 KR088314
Dioscorea gillettii Milne-Redh. SD7052 (ETH) - - - KR087045 KR086959 KR070875 KR087001 KR087146 KR088313
Dioscorea hemicrypta Burkill AMM5800 (BOL) South Africa - Western Cape From Medium to high altitude, in thorny and succulent vegetation (e.g. Thickets) Pachycaul, partially emerged with annual shoot emerging from the crown KR087050 KR086964 KR070880 KR087006 KR087151 KR088318
Dioscorea hemicrypta Burkill AMM6633 (BOL) - - - KR087049 KR086963 KR070879 KR087005 KR087150 KR088317
Dioscorea hemicrypta Burkill AMM6886a (BOL) - - - KR087047 KR086961 KR070877 KR087003 KR087148 KR088315
Dioscorea hemicrypta Burkill AMM6697 (BOL) - - - KR087048 KR086962 KR070878 KR087004 KR087149 KR088316
Dioscorea kituiensis Wilkin & Muasya Mwachala 949a (K) Eastern Kenya Rocky area in dry woodlands Tuberous perennial with twining stems reaching 1.5 m height KR087051 KR086965 KR070881 KR087007 KR087152 KR088319
Dioscorea multiloba Kunth AMM6167 (BOL) South Africa - Eastern Cape, KwaZulu-Natal and Swaziland High altitude forests vegetation. Tuberous perennial with twining stems reaching 2 m in height KR087052 KR086966 KR070882 KR087008 KR087153 KR088320
Dioscorea mundii Baker AMM6641 (BOL) South Africa - Western Cape Coastal forest vegetation Perennial with underground tuber from which stems arise (or from the bases of old stems) that climb to at least 5 m in height in surrounding vegetation KR087054 KR086968 KR070884 KR087010 KR087155 KR088322
Dioscorea mundii Baker AMM6642 (BOL) - - - KR087053 KR086967 KR070883 KR087009 KR087154 KR088321
Dioscorea orientalis (J. Thiébaut) Caddick & Wilkin Tori 1 (HUJ) Temperate western Asia Mediterranean Woodlands and Shrublands Geophyte, climber KM877858 KM877911 KM878066 KR087011 KR087156 KR088323
Dioscorea prazeri Prain & Burkill Wilkin1075 (K) Asia Open vegetation in mixed forests Rhizome, with climbing stem up to 5 m height AY973485 KM877871 KM878019 KR087012 KR087157 KR088324
Dioscorea pyrenaica Bubani & Bordère ex Gren. EP1038 (JACA) France, Spain (Pyrenees mountain range) On limestone rocks Tuberculous plant with short annual stems reaching 40 cm height KM877859 KM877912 KM878067 KR087013 KR087158 n.a.
Dioscorea rupicola Kunth AMM3676 (BOL) South Africa - Eastern Cape, KwaZulu-Natal Occurring in open areas at high altitude in shady temperate and humid forest Perennial tuber with twining stems growing on surrounding vegetation KR087055 KR086969 KR070885 KR087014 KR087159 KR088325
Dioscorea sansibarensis Pax OM2421 (BNRH) Sub-Saharan Africa, including Madagascar but excluding Southern Africa Humid forest, low altitude, along riverine Large tuberous species with vigorous stems up to 30 m in length climbing and trailing on surrounding vegetation KR087056 KR086970 KR070886 KR087015 KR087160 KR088326
Dioscorea schimperana Hochst. ex Kunth OM2372 (BNRH) Tropical Africa, including Zambia, Zimbabwe, Malawi and Mozambique Open vegetation, on Rocks, termites’ mounts and along riverbanks Annual tuber, producing vigorous shoots reaching 8 m height KR087058 KR086972 KR070888 KR087017 KR087162 KR088328
Dioscorea schimperana Hochst. ex Kunth OM3532 (BNRH) - - - KR087057 KR086971 KR070887 KR087016 KR087161 KR088327
Dioscorea stipulosa Uline ex R. Knuth AMM6748 (BOL) South Africa - Eastern Cape In fynbos, in moist rich soils Perennial tuber with annual shoot reaching up to 3 m in length KR087060 KR086974 KR070890 KR087019 KR087164 KR088330
Dioscorea stipulosa Uline ex R. Knuth AMM6800 (BOL) - - - KR087059 KR086973 KR070889 KR087018 KR087163 KR088329
Dioscorea strydomiana Wilkin AMM6124 (BOL) South Africa, Mpumalanga Open woodland Pachycaul up to 80 cm in diameter, with shoot up to 90 cm height KF147467 KF147390 KR070892 KR087021 KR087166 KR088332
Dioscorea strydomiana Wilkin Burrows 10627 (BNRH) - - - KR087061 KR086975 KR070891 KR087020 KR087165 KR088331
Dioscorea sylvatica Eckl. Burrows 12487 (BNRH) Southern Africa Found from low to high altitude in a variable range of vegetation from Dunes, to rocky outcrop and open woodland vegetation. Perennial tuber, with Herbaceous annual stem reaching 4 m in length KR087062 KR086976 KR070893 KR087022 KR087167 KR088333
Dioscorea sylvatica Eckl. OM1433 (BNRH) - - - KR087063 KR086977 KR070894 KR087023 KR087168 KR088334
Dioscorea sylvatica Eckl. f. glauca Burrows 12477 (BNRH) - - - KR087064 KR086978 KR070895 KR087024 KR087169 KR088335
Dioscorea tentaculigera Prain & Burkill Thapyai 436 South Central Chine, Myanmar and Thailand Evergreen forest from medium to high altitude Perennial tuber, with climbing stems up to 4 m in length AY972828 AY939886 KM878070 KR087025 KR087170 KR088336
Tamus edulis Lowe
(combination in Dioscorea pending)
Chase 3425 (K) Mediterranean region Woodland and woodland hedges Herbaceous with climbing stem AY939891 AY973843 KR070861 KR086986 KR087131 KR088298
Stenomeris borneensis Oliv. Brun19174 (K) Tropical Asia - - AF307475 AY973836 - - - -
Tacca plantaginea (Hance) Drenth ZL002 (n.a.) Tropical Asia - - JF944619 JF956650 - - - -