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Fig. 4 | BMC Evolutionary Biology

Fig. 4

From: Multigene phylogenetic analysis redefines dung beetles relationships and classification (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae)

Fig. 4

Illustrated synapomorphies and diagnostic characters defining Deltochilini sensu novo and Dichotomiini sensu novo. Every synapomorphy or diagnostic statement is preceded by a grey circle indicating whether the synapomorphy is unique (U), homoplastic (H), or the statement is diagnostic (D). Explanatory text for character statements is shown next to the images in the figure; additional information is available in Table 1. Vein names are shown for some wing veins for annotation purposes. In some cases morphological parts of species from other tribes are used for illustration purposes. Phylogenetic trees refer to the representatives of the respective tribes from Fig. 3. Maps show the distribution of the tribes per biogeographic region; red color saturation corresponds to approximate species number. a). Canthon virens; b, e, f, g). Chalcocopris hesperus; c). Uroxys epipleuralis; d). Dichotomius sericeus; a, d). wing; b). aedeagal sclerites; c). elytron; e, f). maxilla; g). epipharynx; j, n). prothorax

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