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Fig. 4 | BMC Evolutionary Biology

Fig. 4

From: The trans-generational impact of population density signals on host-parasite interactions

Fig. 4

The multivariate responses of infected hosts to low- and high-density population signals. Each panel represents a different principal component analysis conducted using individuals with complete data for fecundity, body size, and spore loads. Before analysis traits were standardised to a mean of zero and standard deviation of one. The loadings of each trait to the relevant multivariate axes are indicated by the direction and angle of each traits vector (the arrows). Ellipsoids indicate treatment group clustering based on a multivariate t-distribution and 95% confidence level. a Direct effect & Low − density. b Direct effect & High − density. c Maternal effect & Low − density. d Maternal effect & High − density

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