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Table 5 Review of redstart responses to foreign eggs

From: The common redstart as a suitable model to study cuckoo-host coevolution in a unique ecological context

Model Locality Number Ejected (%) Deserted (%) Parasitism rate Reference
Natural cuckoo eggs
 Non-manipulated Finland NW 46 0 13 31 [24]
 Non-manipulated Finland E 54 0 13 21 [16]
 Non-manipulated Finland C 187 0 4 44 [48]
 Non-manipulated Czech Republic 62 0 6 31 [20]
 Non-manipulated Finland SE 43 0 19 33 this study
 Cross-fostered Finland NW 16 0 0 31 [24]
 Cross-fostered Finland SE 73 0 1 30 this studya
 Conspecific eggs Finland SE 14 0 0 30 this study
Mimetic models
 Redstart-cuckoo type Finland NW 16 0 0 31 [24]
 Redstart-cuckoo type Finland NC 9 11 33 0 [25]
 Redstart-cuckoo type Finland E 26 4 4 21 [16]
 Redstart-cuckoo type Finland E 29 3 3 17 [25]
 Redstart-cuckoo type Great Britain 1 0 0 0 [5]
 Cowbird blue Finland SE 12 17 17 30 [32]
Non-mimetic models
 Brambling-cuckoo Finland NW 41 5 7 31 [24]
 Brambling-cuckoo Finland NC 14 14 36 0 [25]
 Brambling-cuckoo Finland E 27 41 4 21 [16]
 Brambling-cuckoo Finland E 37 32 5 17 [25]
 Meadow pipit-cuckoo Norway C 5 0 20 0 [6]
 Meadow pipit-cuckoo Great Britain 4 0 0 0 [5]
 Pied wagtail-cuckoo Great Britain 4 50 0 0 [5]
 Cowbird spotted Finland SE 13 46 8 30 [32]
 Cowbird immaculate Finland SE 7 29 0 30 [32]
Non-mimetic natural eggs
 Black complete Finland SE 22 45 9 30 [34]
 Black spots Finland SE 17 0 6 30 [34]
 Blue complete Czech Republic 25 76 0 0 this studyb
 Great tit Finland SW 7 57 0 0 [50]
 Various species Finland SW 6 0 0 0 [42]c
 Various species Finland N 35 31 0 0 [43]d
  1. See original studies for detailed information on the size, colour and maculation of experimental eggs
  2. aSample sizes differ from Table 3 because desertion was not a specific response to parasitism in this treatment (Table 3, Results); therefore we excluded the deserted nests
  3. bSee Methods
  4. cAuthor used natural eggs of the chaffinch, redwing, great tit and wryneck; experimental eggs introduced around hatching time
  5. dAuthor used natural eggs of the brambling, meadow pipit and redpoll; acceptance period was set to 24 h, then the experimental egg was removed