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Table 2 Trophic strategy, rhizomorph production in nature and known geographic range of species used in this study

From: Resolved phylogeny and biogeography of the root pathogen Armillaria and its gasteroid relative, Guyanagaster

Species Facultative Necrotroph? Characterization Rhizomorphs in nature? Hosts Known range References
Armillaria affinis Unknown   Unknown   Central America [59]
Armillaria altimontana Unknown   Yes Hardwoods and conifers Higher elevation forests of Western interior of North America [83]
Armillaria borealis Yes Weakly pathogenic, opportunistic Yes Birch, wild cherry Europe [58, 84]
Armillaria calvescens Yes Opportunistic pathogen on stressed trees Yes Hardwoods, particularly sugar maple Eastern North America [85, 86]
Armillaria camerunensis Unknown Observed in a disease center, but unknown if it is the causal agent None observed Unknown Africa This study
Armillaria cepistipes Yes Weakly pathogenic Yes Conifers Europe, North America [58, 87]
Armillaria fumosa Unknown   Unknown   Australia [59]
Armillaria fuscipes Yes Particularly pathogenic to exotic species None observed Pine forest plantations, Acacia and Cordia species Africa, India [74, 75, 88]
Armillaria gallica Yes Weakly or secondarily pathogenic Yes Hardwoods Europe, North America, Asia [58]
Armillaria gemina Yes Primary pathogen Yes Maples, beech Birch Eastern North America [86]
Armillaria hinnulea Yes Secondary pathogen Yes In wet sclerophyll forests Australia, New Zealand [89, 90]
Armillaria limonea Yes Pathogenic to pine seedlings (introduced tree) Yes Pine Argentina, Chile, New Zealand [68, 91, 92]
Armillaria luteobubalina Yes Primary pathogen in native forests Yes Eucalyptus Australia, Tasmania [68, 9395]
Armillaria mellea Yes Highly pathogenic Yes Over 600 ornamentals, hardwood and orchard trees Europe, North America, Asia [58, 96]
Armillaria novae-zelandiae Yes Pathogenic to pine seedlings (introduced tree) Yes Pine Argentina,
Australia, Chile, New Zealand
[91, 92, 95]
Armillaria pallidula Unknown   Unknown   Australia [59]
Armillaria puiggarii Unknown Observed in a disease center, but unknown if it is the causal agent Melanized rhizomorphs observed in the field Dicymbe spp. Argentina, Bolivia
Caribbean, Guyana
[95] and this study
Armillaria sinapina Yes Weakly pathogenic Yes Conifers North America, Japan [97]
Armillaria solidipes Yes Highly pathogenic Yes Conifers Cooler regions of North America, Europe, China [58, 98]
Desarmillaria ectypa Unknown Saprotrophic on decaying peat moss No Sphagnum moss Europe, Russia, Japan, China [57]
Desarmillaria tabescens Yes Highly pathogenic No Eucalyptus, Quercus Asia, Europe, North America [58, 73]
Guyanagaster lucianii Unknown Only saprotrophic stage observed No Eperua spp. Guyana This study
Guyanagaster necrorhizus Unknown Only saprotrophic stage observed No, but short non-melanized hyphal cords may be produced Dicymbe spp. Guyana [27]