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Table 1 LMMs investigating how social status affects within-ejaculate variation in sperm design or total sperm length

From: Social dominance explains within-ejaculate variation in sperm design in a passerine bird

a) Sperm design
Random effects Estimates ± SE   Z P
 Aviary 0   0 1
 Sampling date 0.011 ± 0.013   0.87 0.19
Fixed effects   F df P
 Intercept 0.75 ± 0.08    
 Social statusa   3.38 3, 45 0.027
  Dominant 0.053 ± 0.066    
  Subordinate-1 -0.083 ± 0.067    
  Subordinate-2 0.139 ± 0.066    
 Body mass 0.021 ± 0.036 1.21 1, 45.6 0.28
 Tarsus length 0.039 ± 0.077 2.29 1, 45.2 0.14
 Social status x Body massa   1.27 3, 45.1 0.30
  Dominant -0.020 ± 0.060    
  Subordinate-1 0.075 ± 0.058    
  Subordinate-2 -0.039 ± 0.057    
 Social status x Tarsus lengtha   0.91 3, 45.3 0.44
  Dominant -0.088 ± 0.122    
  Subordinate-1 0.131 ± 0.129    
  Subordinate-2 0.038 ± 0.100    
b) Total sperm length
Random effects Estimates ± SE   Z P
 Aviary    1.03 0.15
 Sampling date    0.63 0.26
Fixed effects   F df P
 Intercept 2.12 ± 0.24    
 Social statusa   0.56 3, 34.4 0.64
  Dominant -0.024 ± 0.23    
  Subordinate-1 -0.009 ± 0.24    
  Subordinate-2 -0.26 ± 0.23    
Body mass 0.001 ± 0.14 3.45 1, 39.5 0.07
Tarsus length 0.16 ± 0.30 6.90 1, 45 0.012
Social status x Body massa   4.34 3, 44.3 0.009
  Dominant 0.45 ± 0.24    
  Subordinate-1 0.51 ± 0.22    
  Subordinate-2 -0.23 ± 0.22    
Social status x Tarsus lengtha   0.70 3, 43 0.56
  Dominant 0.11 ± 0.48    
  Subordinate-1 0.67 ± .50    
  Subordinate-2 0.29 ± 0.39    
  1. aRelative to subordinate-3 males. Values in bold indicate significance at α = 0.05; tests of random effects are based on Wald-Z; tarsus length and body mass were centred to allow for correct estimations of main “social status” effects