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Table 1 Age estimates (in ka) of the clades mentioned in the text. Node ages for haplogroup U2 were estimated in an independent analysis

From: A genetic chronology for the Indian Subcontinent points to heavily sex-biased dispersals

Clade ML ρ whole mtDNA ρ synonymous clock
N 67.7 [58.4–77.1] 63.5 [51.7–75.7] 71.5 [51.3–91.8]
R 64.5 [55.9–73.2] 57.0 [48.6–65.5] 63.5 [49.1–77.8]
R7 62.2 [52.9–71.7] 62.0 [43.0–81.6] 76.0 [42.2–109.8]
R8b1 12.0 [7.0–17.1] 11.1 [5.8–16.5] 5.1 [2.1–8.1]
R30 60.9 [49.6–72.5] 53.0 [40.6–65.8] 61.5 [40.5–82.6]
R30c + 373 8.6 [0.0–48.1] 9.0 [3.5–14.6] 6.3 [0.5–12.1]
R31 62.5 [53.0–72.1] 70.8 [50.4–92.0] 75.2 [43.3–107.1]
M 50.1 [44.8–55.5] 41.2 [37.0–45.4] 41.3 [34.6–48.0]
M2 43.2 [34.7–52.0] 51.2 [35.8–67.3] 44.5 [23.2–65.8]
M2a1a1b 22.0 [0.0–6.0] 3.3 [0.0–7.7] 3.4 [0.0–10.0]
M2a1b 0.7 [0.0–2.5] 0.6 [0.0–1.5] 1.0 [0.0–2.9]
M2a3a + 4314 0.9 [0.0–2.8] 0.9 [0.0–2.5]
M2c + 1888 + 146 2.5 [0.0–19.9] 3.5 [0.0–8.4] 10.5 [0.0–25.1]
M3a1 + 204 + 14476 1.2 [0.0–2.7] 1.0 [0.0–2.0] 2.4 [0.0–5.0]
M3a1 + 204 + 10845 + 13105 0.9 [0.0–3.3] 0.9 [0.0–2.6] 0.0
M3b 1.8 [0.0–4.5] 2.2 [0.0–5.7] 5.5 [0.0–15.6]
M4’67 38.0 [30.1–46.0] 27.8 [23.4–32.3] 22.7 [18.3–27.0]
M5a1b1a1 (M5a1b + 3954 + 9833 + 16298) 3.0 [1.0–5.0] 2.7 [1.4–4.1] 2.3 [0.0–4.7]
M5a2a + 8158 + 199 1.9 [0.7–3.2] 1.8 [0.7–2.8] 3.0 [0.6–5.3]
M5a2a2 + 234 1.5 [0.0–4.2] 1.4 [0.2–2.7] 2.6 [0.0–5.6]
M5a3a 0.7 [0.0–3.3]
M5a3b 1.6 [0.0–3.5] 1.5 [0.1–3.0] 1.6 [0.0–3.8]
M5b 33.0 [23.6–42.9] 30.7 [20.9–40.9] 36.9 [17.7–56.2]
M5c 35.2 [24.2–46.6] 41.5 [28.2–55.3] 49.3 [25.0–73.6]
M6 35.6 [25.9–45.7] 37.9 [23.4–53.2] 48.7 [19.6–77.9]
M6a1 + 5585 + 146 + 1508 1.3 [0.0–3.2] 1.1 [0.0–2.3] 0.9 [0.0–2.6]
M6a1a 11.4 [4.0–19.2] 10.6 [6.6–14.7] 10.3 [4.9–15.8]
M13b 32.8 [21.5–44.5] 30.7 [17.1–45.2] 33.8 [12.2–55.4]
M18a 9.2 [6.0–12.4] 8.1 [5.6–10.5] 6.0 [2.1–10.0]
M30a2 2.3 [0.0–8.5] 1.9 [0.0–4.8]
M30d 11.4 [4.6–18.5] 9.2 [4.1–14.3] 10.0 [2.8–17.2]
M31 38.0 [27.9–48.4] 38.4 [25.9–51.4] 43.6 [20.6–66.7]
M32’56 42.4 [25.8–60.0] 33.0 [16.7–50.4] 14.5 [0.5–28.4]
M33a 35.2 [24.5–46.3] 29.1 [21.2–37.2] 32.3 [19.3–45.3]
M34 29.7 [19.4–40.4] 28.1 [17.6–39.1] 39.4 [17.9–60.9]
M35 40.1 [25.4–55.5] 26.9 [18.5–35.6] 26.4 [15.5–37.3]
M36 36.4 [25.8–47.4] 26.9 [16.2–38.2] 30.6 [11.6–49.6]
M38 29.4 [20.4–38.7] 32.5 [23.6–41.7] 33.8 [19.4–48.2]
M39 36.8 [27.3–46.6] 23.7 [15.3–32.5] 21.2 [9.1–33.2]
M42b 42.5 [33.8–51.4] 43.5 [27.1–60.8] 49.7 [22.4–77.1]
M45 30.6 [19.0–42.8] 30.7 [18.5–43.6] 33.8 [14.1–53.5]
M49 31.0 [21.2–41.2] 26.3 [18.1–34.8] 25.6 [13.6–37.5]
M50 43.3 [30.6–56.6] 47.4 [32.3–63.3] 52.0 [26.4–77.7]
M52 33.4 [23.4–43.9] 31.0 [22.1–40.2] 33.4 [19.0–47.9]
M57 32.4 [18.2–47.3] 28.8 [19.0–38.9] 24.5 [11.5–37.6]
M60 36.5 [23.3–50.4] 24.8 [15.8–34.2] 21.0 [8.9–33.2]
M61 24.6 [13.6–36.2] 11.8 [6.0–17.8] 12.4 [1.4–23.4]
M61 + 5294 1.6 [0.0–5.1] 1.9 [0.0–4.8] 2.0 [0.0–5.8]
M63 1.4 [0.0–3.8] 1.3 [0.0–2.8] 1.3 [0.0–3.9]
M65 29.3 [14.7–44.8] 20.6 [12.6–29.0] 21.3 [8.4–34.1]
N1a2 12.5 [2.9–22.6] 6.5 [2.1–11.2] 7.9 [0.2–15.6]
N1a1b1 20.9 [11.4–30.8] 19.0 [10.4–27.9] 22.1 [7.6–36.6]
H2b 6.2 [3.8–8.7] 5.2 [3.4–7.1] 4.8 [1.7–7.9]
H13a2a + 8952 6.6 [1.3–12.1] 7.2 [1.0–13.6] 2.0 [0.0–5.8]
H29 + 9156 + 4689 1.6 [0.0–4.7] 1.3 [0.0–3.8] 3.9 [0.0–11.7]
HV + 73 23.7 [17.1–30.4] 30.1 [19.6–41.0] 29.8 [12.1–47.5]
HV + 146 23.9 [10.3–38.4] 19.0 [8.8–29.8] 11.8 [0.0–25.2]
HV + 9716 19.6 [8.1–31.8] 13.4 [5.0–22.2] 3.9 [0.0–11.7]
HV + 16311 15.6 [9.9–21.5] 15.5 [7.6–23.8] 19.3 [3.4–35.1]
HV2 21.9 [15.1–28.9] 30.7 [17.9–44.2] 38.1 [12.2–64.0]
HV12b 13.3 [5.3–21.6] 12.6 [5.7–19.8] 5.6 [0.7–10.6]
HV14 + 150 6.9 [2.9–11.0] 6.7 [1.0–12.6] 11.4 [0.0–25.7]
I1 13.8 [8.5–19.2] 10.6 [6.3–15.0] 11.8 [4.1–19.6]
J1b1b1 13.9 [8.6–19.3] 12.6 [7.9–17.4] 12.4 [5.1–19.7]
J1d 24.1 [14.9–33.7] 16.2 [10.2–22.3] 17.3 [7.1–27.6]
K1a1b2a 10.4 [4.0–17.0] 12.0 [4.1–20.3] 7.9 [0.0–18.8]
K2a5 7.6 [3.6–11.7] 8.2 [3.9–12.6] 5.3 [1.1–9.5]
K2a5 + 2831 6.8 [2.9–10.7] 8.4 [3.5–13.5] 4.7 [0.0–10.1]
K2a5 + 2831 + 189 5.9 [2.1–9.8] 10.6 [3.2–18.4] 7.9 [0.0–18.8]
R0a2 + 11152 7.1 [1.1–13.3] 6.5 [0.8–12.5] 7.9 [0.0–18.8]
R2a + 7142 3.2 [0.0–6.9] 2.9 [0.0–5.9] 1.8 [0.0–4.2]
T2 + 195 + 4225 9.7 [2.9–16.8] 6.8 [2.3–11.5] 3.2 [0.0–7.5]
T2b 10.6 [5.3–16.0] 7.1 [3.6–10.8] 3.4 [0.0–7.2]
T2d1a 12.0 [5.0–19.3] 10.6 [4.5–16.9] 7.9 [0.0–16.8]
T2e2 10.6 [3.4–18.1] 12.0 [4.1–20.3] 11.8 [0.0–25.2]
U1a1 20.0 [14.4–25.7] 15.2 [10.4–20.1] 15.2 [6.2–24.3]
U1a1a2a 2.5 [0.0–7.3] 1.9 [0.0–4.8] 5.9 [0.0–14.6]
U1a3 + 10253 10.3 [4.6–16.2] 8.9 [4.6–13.3] 10.8 [2.9–18.8]
U1a3a 5.2 [0.0–11.0] 3.9 [0.0–8.4] 3.9 [0.0–11.7]
Pre-U1c 21.4 [9.1–34.5] 14.3 [6.7–22.2] 13.1 [1.6–24.7]
U2 52.3 [41.6–63.3] 53.8 [41.8–66.2] 54.1 [36.6–71.6]
U2b2 9.2 [6.3–12.2] 8.6 [6.1–11.1] 9.9 [5.3–14.4
U2c1 + 146 1.4 [0.0–24.8] 1.7 [0.0–5.1]
U7a 18.1 [14.4–22.0] 18.8 [14.5–23.2] 19.7 [11.5–27.9]
U7a + 12373 10.2 [3.0–17.6] 8.8 [2.8–15.0] 10.5 [0.0–23.1]
U7a3a + 6150 9.8 [4.4–15.4] 8.6 [3.5–13.8] 2.0 [0.0–5.8]
U7b + 16309! 10.9 [6.1–15.9] 8.6 [3.6–13.8] 8.4 [0.0–18.1]
W3a1 + 143 9.8 [3.0–16.8] 7.9 [1.5–14.5] 19.7 [2.4–37.0]
W3a1 + 1709 8.1 [1.6–15.0] 6.5 [0.8–12.5]
W3a1b 11.4 [6.3–16.6] 11.2 [6.1–16.3] 7.1 [1.1–13.1]
W4 15.8 [9.5–22.3] 15.5 [8.7–22.5] 11.8 [2.4–21.3]
W6 11.5 [5.0–18.3] 10.9 [5.7–16.3] 13.1 [6.5–19.8]
X2 + 153 + 7109 7.7 [0.0–17.0] 4.3 [0.0–9.0] 2.6 [0.0–7.8]