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Table 2 Age estimates (in ka) of haplogroup M in different regions of South Asia: (1) using the raw modern geographic distribution and (2) considering the most probable origin of each major haplogroup and including only basal lineages of each region

From: A genetic chronology for the Indian Subcontinent points to heavily sex-biased dispersals

  ML ρ whole mtDNA ρ synonymous clock
(1) West 47.7 [41.3–54.2] 37.4 [31.6–43.2] 39.0 [28.8–49.2]
South 47.2 [41.5–53.1] 42.4 [36.7–48.3] 40.0 [31.4–48.6]
East 47.7 [42.5–53.0] 42.4 [38.4–46.6] 43.9 [37.1–50.8]
Central 43.6 [38.1–49.1] 40.8 [35.4–46.3] 41.4 [33.0–49.7]
(2) West 55.3 [45.1–65.9] 44.5 [32.5–57.0] 50.6 [29.7–71.4]
South 48.9 [42.1–55.8] 47.5 [39.2–56.0] 41.1 [29.6–52.6]
East 45.2 [38.8–51.8] 40.8 [34.6–47.0] 40.1 [31.3–48.9]
Central 39.5 [31.9–47.2] 33.0 [26.8–39.3] 34.80 [23.2–46.5]