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Table 3 Genetic changes within or upstream of genes that have experimentally verified roles in E. coli biofilm formation in other studies

From: A passive mutualistic interaction promotes the evolution of spatial structure within microbial populations

aMutualistic consortium bEvolved mutualistic partner Mutation type Gene(s) or intergenic region Role of gene(s) in E. coli biofilm formation Reference
A1 BW25113 (∆proC) non-synonymous point mutation, A- > G spoT c c-di-GMP regulation [51, 52]
A3 BW25113 (∆proC) Δ16 bp, intergenic region upstream of flhD motility regulation [57, 58]
  BW25113 (∆trpC)a Δ1 bp, coding region hdfR motility regulation [58, 59]
  BW25113 (∆trpC)b Δ1 bp, coding region hdfR motility regulation [58, 59]
A4 BW25113 (∆proC) non-synonymous point mutation, G- > A flhC motility regulation [60]
  BW25113 (∆trpC)a Δ627 bp, coding and intergenic regions spoT c-trmH c-di-GMP regulation [51, 52]
  BW25113 (∆trpC)b Δ627 bp, coding and intergenic regions spoT c-trmH c-di-GMP regulation [51, 52]
A6 BW25113 (∆trpC) non-synonymous point mutation, C- > T glmU c extracellular matrix [53, 54]
  BW25113 (∆trpC) point mutation, intergenic region upstream of yqcC biofilm maturation [61]
A7 BW25113 (∆trpC)a Δ15 bp, coding region spoT c c-di-GMP regulation [51, 52]
  BW25113 (∆trpC)b Δ15 bp, coding region spoT c c-di-GMP regulation [51, 52]
  BW25113 (∆trpC)c Δ15 bp, coding region spoT c c-di-GMP regulation [51, 52]
A8 BW25113 (∆proC) Δ3 bp, coding region glmU c extracellular matrix [53, 54]
  BW25113 (∆proC) Δ3 bp, coding region gspA biofilm maturation [62]
  BW25113 (∆proC) Δ3 bp, coding region rcsF EPS regulation [63, 64]
  BW25113 (∆trpC)c Δ6 bp, coding region bamA extracellular matrix [65, 66]
B1 BW25113 (∆trpC) Δ11 bp, coding region nlpI extracellular matrix [67]
B2 BW25113 (∆proC) Δ10 bp, intergenic region upstream of bluF and ycg EPS regulation [61, 62]
  BW25113 (∆proC) Δ5 bp, coding region dksA c-di-GMP regulation [61, 63, 68]
  BW25113 (∆proC) Δ3 bp, intergenic region upstream of yliE c-di-GMP regulation [52]
  BW25113 (∆proC) 113 bp duplication of coding region yeaP fimbriae regulation [69]
  BW25113 (∆trpC)a non-synonymous point mutation, G- > T gpp c-di-GMP regulation [52, 70]
B7 BW25113 (∆proC) Δ1 bp, coding region bluR EPS regulation [56]
  1. aOnly those consortia that avoided extinction were analyzed. bSubscripts indicate that more than one clone of that mutualistic partner was sequenced from the corresponding mutualistic consortium. cGenetic changes in spoT and glmU have been observed in other studies where cell aggregation did not emerge