Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 1 Remarkable differences for ordinal or supraordinal taxa between JS Nelson, T Grande and MVH Wilson's (NGW [42]) classification and the update proposed herein. The circumscription of other orders may also differ due to variations in family validation (see Table 2) or due to inclusion of fossil taxa in NGW. Differences in taxonomic ranks and endings are considered minor and thus are not listed herein. NEL: [41]

From: Phylogenetic classification of bony fishes

Taxon (order-level or above) Differences with NGW Justification/Remarks
Teleostomi, Ginglymodi, Halecomorphi and Teleosteomorpha/Teleocephala Not classified herein Redundant with Osteichthyes, Amiiformes, Lepisosteiformes, and Teleostei, respectively, when only extant taxa are considered.
Dipnotetrapodomorpha Not classified by NGW Only shown in one of NGW’s cladograms but not formally classified therein.
Actinopteri Not classified by NGW Non-polypteriform actinopterygiians; a robust clade.
Elopocephalai Not classified by NGW Not a major difference; it is redundant with Elopomorpha.
Anguilliformes, Gadiformes Classified into suborders in NGW but not herein Phylogenetic incongruence with most subordinal classifications.
Cypriniformes Classified into suborders herein but not in NGW Following [102].
Cetopsoidei Not classified herein The subordinal classification for Siluriformes follows [198].
Protacanthopterygii Includes four orders herein and only two in NGW Differences are in part due to phylogenetic uncertainty. We classify this taxon as sedis mutabilis.
Zoroteleostei Classified by NGW only Circumscription of this taxon is in conflict with Protacanthopterygii. See comments in text.
Osmeromorpha Classified by NGW only Circumscription of this taxon is incongruent with all recent higher-level phylogenetic analyses of fishes. See comments in text.
Stomiati Not classified by NGW The circumscription of Stomiati herein is in conflict with NGW’s Osmeromorpha. See comments above and in text.
Stomiiformes/Stomiatiformes Spelling Stomiatiformes sensu [43]; Stomiiformes sensu [207].
Stomiatoidei/Phosichthyoidei Phosichthyoidei sensu NGW; Stomiatoidei herein Based on Stomiidae.
Paracanthopterygii Includes Polymixiiformes in NGW but not here Polymixia has a rogue placement among early acanthomorphs. Our classification is robust to phylogenetic uncertainty.
Zeiogadaria Not classified by NGW Denotes a robust clade including Zeiformes + (Stylephoriformes + Gadiformes); this taxon has been recognized before (i.e., Zeiogadiformes sensu [80]).
Berycimorphaceae/Berycida Berycida sensu NGW is similar to Berycimorphaceae as classified herein, but the former includes Holocentriformes Holocentridae is sometimes recovered as the sister taxon of percomophs, which may render Berycida sensu NGW non-monophyletic.
Anoplogastroidei Not classified herein Not monophyletic.
Trachichthyoidei Not classified herein Not monophyletic.
Holocentrimorphaceae Not classified by NGW Included in Berycida sensu NGW. See comments above.
Pelagiaria Not classified by NGW A robust clade (series) including 17 families in the order Scombriformes, as classified herein.
Scombriformes Includes 17 families herein and only nine in NGW Scombriformes sensu NGW is paraphyletic considering all higher-level molecular phylogenies of percomorphs.
Scombroidei and Stromateoidei Not classified herein Interfamilial resolution in Scombriformes is tenuous; classification of scombriform families into suborders requires further work.
Icosteiformes Not classified herein Icosteidae, the sole family in this order, is part of Pelagiaria (Scombriformes) herein.
Scombrolabraciformes Not classified herein Scombrolabracidae, the sole family in this order, is part of Pelagiaria (Scombriformes) herein.
Trachiniformes Not classified herein (similar to Uranoscopiformes) Trachiniformes sensu NGW is polyphyletic. It includes families placed in Pelagiaria and Eupercaria.
Syngnatharia Not classified by NGW A robust clade (series) including 10 families in the order Syngnathiformes, as classified herein.
Syngnathiformes Includes 10 families herein and eight in NGW Exclusion of Mullidae and Callionymoidei renders Syngnathiformes paraphyletic.
Aulostomoidei Not classified herein Not monophyletic.
Callionymiformes Suborder (Callionymoidei) of Syngnathiformes herein Recognition of Callionymiformes as a separate order renders Syngnathiformes paraphyletic.
Anabantaria Not classified by NGW A robust clade (series) including the orders Synbranchiformes (including Indostomidae) and Anabantiformes.
Indostomoidei Not classified by NGW Indostomidae is not included in Synbranchiformes by NGW; exclusion of this family renders the order (and component suborders) non-monophyletic.
Nandoidei Not classified by NGW The order Anabantiformes in classified in three suborders herein. This scheme is robust to phylogenetic uncertainity.
Carangaria Not classified by NGW A robust clade (series) including the orders Istiophoriformes, Carangiformes, Pleuronectiformes and several families listed as order-level incertae sedis.
Istiophoriformes Includes two families herein and three in NGW Inclusion of Sphyraenidae renders Istiophoriformes non-monophyletic.
Belonoidei/Exocoetoidei Exocoetoidei sensu NGW; Belonoidei herein Belonoidei is the name-bearer.
Eupercaria Not classified by NGW A robust clade (series) including at least 17 orders and 161 families. The order Perciformes belongs in this clade.
Gerreiformes Not classified by NGW Includes the family Gerreidae, which is sister to all other eupercarians (listed under Perciformes in NGW).
Acanthuriformes Includes three families herein and five in NGW Inclusion of Emmelichthyidae and Sciaenidae renders Acanthuriformes non-monophyletic.
Acanthuroidei and Sciaenoidei Not classified herein See comment under Acanthuriformes above.
Moroniformes/Ephippiformes Moroniformes in NGW (three families) and Ephippiformes herein (two families) Our results do not support a close relationship between Moronidae and Drepaneidae + Ephippidae.
Spariformes Includes three families herein and six in NGW Inclusion of Callanthiidae, Lobotidae (including Datnioididae) and Sillaginidae renders Spariformes non-monophyletic.
Chaetodontiformes Not classified by NGW A robust clade (order) including the families Chaetodontidae and Leiognathidae.
Lobotiformes Not classified by NGW A robust clade (order) including the families Hapalogenyidae, Datnioididae and Lobotidae (listed in Spariformes or Perciformes in NGW).
Lutjaniformes Not classified by NGW A robust clade (order) including the families Lutjanidae and Haemulidae (listed under Perciformes in NGW).
Priacanthiformes Not classified by NGW A robust clade (order) including the families Priacanthidae and Cepolidae (listed under Perciformes in NGW).
Uranoscopiformes Not classified by NGW A robust clade (order) including the families Ammodytidae, Cheimarrichthyidae, Pinguipedidae and Uranoscopidae (listed under Trachiniformes in NGW).
Moloidei Not classified by NGW Placement of Molidae in Tetraodontoidei often results in the non-monophyly of this suborder. The subordinal classification for Tetraodontiformes is robust to phylogenetic uncertainty
Triacanthodoidei Not classified by NGW Placement of Triacanthodidae in Triacanthoidei often results in the non-monophyly of this suborder. The subordinal classification for Tetraodontiformes is robust to phylogenetic uncertainty
Ostracioidea/Ostracioidei Spelling NGW recognize the “Suborder Ostracioidea”, but the appropriate ending for the rank suborder is “-iodei.”
Pempheriformes Not classified by NGW A robust clade (order) including 17 families (most listed under Perciformes in NGW).
Centrarchiformes Not classified by NGW A robust clade (order) including five suborders and 18 families (most listed under Perciformes in NGW).
Perciformes Includes 61 families herein and 62 in NGW (but with very different circumscriptions) Our definition of Perciformes is monophyletic; NGW maintain the status quo by treating Perciformes as a taxonomic waste basket (polyphyletic).
Percoidei Includes three families herein and 46 in NGW Our definition of Percoidei is monophyletic; NGW maintain the status quo by treating Percoidei as a taxonomic waste basket (polyphyletic).
Serranoidei Not classified by NGW Includes Serranidae.
Bembropoidei Not classified by NGW Includes Bembropidae.
Notothenioidei Includes nine families herein and eight in NGW The family Percophidae is a member of Notothenioidei herein [following 242], whereas in NGW it belongs in Trachiniformes.
Scorpaeniformes Includes several families in NGW  that are part of four different perciform suborders herein Recognition of Scorpaeniformes as a separate order renders Perciformes non-monophyletic.
Gasterosteoidei/Gasterosteales Gasterosteoidei (suborder of Scorpaeniformes) in NGW and Gasterosteales (suborder of Perciformes) herein Gasterosteales herein is similar to Gasterosteoidei sensu NGW, except that the former excludes Indostomidae (classified under Synbranchiformes herein).
Ceratodontoidei Not classified by NGW Classified by NEL.
Lepidosirenoidei Not classified by NGW Highlights sister-group relationship between African and South American lungfishes (see also NEL).