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Fig. 1 | BMC Evolutionary Biology

Fig. 1

From: With a little help from my friends: cooperation can accelerate the rate of adaptive valley crossing

Fig. 1

Cooperation and selection affect adaptation time in panmictic populations. The relative difference in adaptation time due to cooperation (ρ(0.6)) is plotted (color coding) as function of the selection coefficient, s (x-axis), and the double mutant coefficient, H (y-axis). Results are based on analytical approximations (Additional file 1: SI1a) of a panmictic population. White areas represent parameters where both cooperators and non-cooperators are not expected to achieve a peak shift by the process described in the text; black areas are parameters for which only non-cooperators are expected to go through the peak shift process; blue areas represent parameters for which both cooperators and non-cooperators achieve a peak shift, but non-cooperators accomplish the process faster. Yellow to orange areas are parameters for which cooperators achieve peak shift faster than non-cooperators, and the colors represent the relative difference in the expected time to peak shift due to cooperation (ρ). Results are shown for two recombination rates: r = 0.01 (panels a and c) and r = 0.1 (panels b and d); and two deme sizes: k = 2 (panels a and b) and k = 10 (panels c and d). Color results (yellow-orange and blue) are based on our approximation Additional file 1: SI1a; White and black border are based on SA3 and S28. Additional parameters are: n = 10,000/k , μ = 10−5 , c = 0.6 , b = 1.2

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