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Fig. 2 | BMC Evolutionary Biology

Fig. 2

From: With a little help from my friends: cooperation can accelerate the rate of adaptive valley crossing

Fig. 2

Cooperation and selection affect adaptation time in populations with limited migration. The relative difference in adaptation time due to cooperation (ρ(0.6)) is plotted (color coding) as function of the selection coefficient, s (x-axis), and the double mutant coefficient, H (y-axis). Results are shown for populations with demes of size k = 10, and limited migration. Left and right columns correspond to low and high recombination rates (r = 0.01, panels a and c; r = 0.1, panels b and d), whereas the top and bottom rows correspond to low and intermediate migration rates (m = 0.01, panels a and b; m = 0.25, panels c and d). White areas represent parameters where both cooperators and non-cooperators are not expected to achieve a peak shift; black areas are parameters for which only non-cooperators are expected to shift a peak; blue areas represent parameters for which both cooperators and non-cooperators achieve a peak shift, but non-cooperators do so faster. Yellow to red areas are parameters for which cooperators achieve a peak shift faster than non-cooperators, and the color represents the average relative difference in the expected time for a peak shift due to cooperation, ρ(0.6). The results are based on stochastic simulations (Additional file 1: SI2), averaged over ≥ 1200 simulations per parameter set. Additional parameter values are μ = 10−5 , b = 1.2 c = 0.6 , n = 1000

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