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Fig. 1 | BMC Evolutionary Biology

Fig. 1

From: Hostplant change and paleoclimatic events explain diversification shifts in skipper butterflies (Family: Hesperiidae)

Fig. 1

Diversification rates across the hesperiid phylogeny and the comparison of rates with paleoclimatic events. A more detailed figure with names of genera is shown in Additional file 2. a The hesperiid time tree mapped with hostplant data and geographic distributions. The names at nodes represent subfamilies. The terminal branches are colored based on the broad category of hostplant use. Monocot feeding taxa are additionally shown with the known categories of plants (black Circle: Poales; Outward triangle: Arecales; Star: Zingiberales; Inward triangle: Asparagales) they feed upon. Coloured circles represent known distributions of the taxa (a filled circle indicates presence in the area). The arrow indicates the shift from dicot to monocot feeding. The red stars at nodes indicate the points of diversification rate shifts (numbered as shift 1 and 2) from the BAMM analysis. b Posterior distributions from the BiSSE analysis for net diversification rates of monocot- and dicot-feeding hesperiids. Lines below each distribution are 95% confidence intervals. c Net diversification rate from the BAMM analysis for the dicot- (blue) and monocot-(red) feeding lineages. d The LTT curve (in red) of the MCC tree superimposed on the LTT curves (in grey) from 1000 trees simulated under constant diversification rate for 290 taxa. e The change in paleoclimatic temperature (as in [93]) (in grey) plotted using the R package RPADNA v1.2 [94]. This climatic plot is superimposed with the mean speciation rate (along with the posterior distributions) for the whole hesperiid phylogeny (in dark grey) and the speciation rates of the lineages those experienced rate shifts (shift 1 and 2 as in (a))

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