Skip to main content


Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Table 3 Nineteen environmental variables used in this study

From: Landscape genomics reveal that ecological character determines adaptation: a case study in smoke tree (Cotinus coggygria Scop.)

(period 1950–2000)
Bio1: Annual mean temperature (°C × 10)
Bio2: Mean diurnal range (Mean of monthly (max temp - min temp))
Bio3: Isothermality (Bio2/Bio7) (×100)
Bio4: Temperature seasonality (standard deviation ×100)
Bio5: Max temperature of warmest month (°C × 10)
Bio6: Min temperature of coldest month (°C × 10)
Bio7: Temperature annual range (E5-E6)
Bio8: Mean temperature of wettest quarter (°C × 10)
Bio9: Mean temperature of driest quarter (°C × 10)
Bio10: Mean temperature of warmest quarter (°C × 10)
Bio11: Mean temperature of coldest quarter (°C × 10)
(period 1950–2000)
Bio12: Annual precipitation (mm)
Bio13: Precipitation of wettest month (mm)
Bio14: Precipitation of driest month (mm)
Bio15: Precipitation seasonality (coefficient of variation)
Bio16: Precipitation of wettest quarter (mm)
Bio17: Precipitation of driest quarter (mm)
Bio18: Precipitation of warmest quarter (mm)
Bio19: Precipitation of coldest quarter (mm)