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Fig. 6 | BMC Evolutionary Biology

Fig. 6

From: Reconstructing the muscular ground pattern of phylactolaemate bryozoans: first data from gelatinous representatives

Fig. 6

Maximum intensity projections and volume renderings of f-actin staining and alpha-tubulin staining of the lophophoral base and tentacles in Cristatella and Pectinatella. a: Overview of the lophophore from the proximal side of Cristatella. The lophophoral arm musculature is visible and runs to the distal tip of the lophophoral arms. These fibers supply the lateral tentacles which are situated at the margin of the lophophoral arms. Part of the retractor muscle is visible. From the retractor muscles two muscle bundles originate which run along the lophophoral base and branch off at the rootlets of the frontal muscle bands. b: View of a lophophoral arm of Pectinatella from the proximal side where the longitudinal musculature of the lophophoral arms is visible. These muscles branch off to each tentacle base. c: Detail of the tentacle base from the abfrontal side in Pectinatella. Each abfrontal muscle starts with diagonally arranged musculature at the base of the tentacle and more distally is made of inverted “v” muscles. d: Detail of the frontal muscle bands in the tentacle of P. magnifica which is also composed of inverted “v” muscles. e: One lophohopral arm of P. magnifica from the distal view. The rootlets of the lateral tentacles branch off from two main muscle bundles that run along the lophophoral arms. f: Detail of one lophophoral arm in C. mucedo. The nervous system and cilia of the tentacles are in green and the musculature in reddish-brown. Medially of the lophophoral arm the ganglionic horn is situated and on both sides two muscle bundles from which the frontal muscle base of the tentacle branches off are visible. Abbreviations: atmb - abfrontal tentacle muscle band, c - cilia, ftbm - frontal tentacle base muscle, ftmb - frontal tentacle muscle band, gh - ganglionic horn, itm - intertentacular membrane, ivm - inverted “v” muscle, la - lophophoral arm, lam - lophophoral arm musculature, rm. – retractor muscles, t - tentacle, tb - tentacle base, tbm - tentacle base musculature, tnb - tentacle neurite bundles

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