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Fig. 8 | BMC Evolutionary Biology

Fig. 8

From: Reconstructing the muscular ground pattern of phylactolaemate bryozoans: first data from gelatinous representatives

Fig. 8

Maximum intensity projections and volume renderings of f actin staining of the epistome and ring canal in Cristatella mucedo and Pectinatella magnifica. a: Epistomal musculature of Cristatella mucedo forms a basket within the coelomic cavity in the epistome. b: Epistomal musculature of Pectinatella magnifica traverses the cavity of the epistome with additional fine fibers in the epistomal wall visible. In the epistomal wall muscle fibers originate at the pharynx and ganglion. c: Part of the lophophoral base of C. mucedo where the connection of the epistome with the trunk coelom is visible. At the base of the epistome smooth muscle fibers run between the pharyngeal epithelium and tentacle sheath in the wall of the epistomal canal. d: View of the lophophoral base in C. mucedo from where muscle fibers originate from the pharyngeal epithelium and ganglion and insert at the tentacle sheath. e: Ring canal musculature in C. mucedo. It consists of muscle fibres which originate from the pharyngeal epithelium and run into the tentacle sheath and very thin muscles in an intertentacular position. f: Ring canal musculature in C. mucedo consists of more prominent muscle fibers at the base of the canal which originate from the pharyngeal epithelium and pass into the tentacle sheath as well as thin fibres at the distal side of the canal with an intertentacular position. Abbreviations: cg - cerebral ganglion, dtm - digestive tract musculature, eb - epistomal base, ec - epistomal cavity, epm - epistome base musculature, em - epistome musculature, ew – epistomal wall, mo - mouth opening, phx - pharynx, rm. - retractor muscles, rc - ring canal, rcm - ring canal musculature, t - tentacle, tb – tentacle base, tm - tentacle musculature, ts – tentacle sheath, tsm - tentacle sheath musculature

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