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Fig. 1 | BMC Evolutionary Biology

Fig. 1

From: Phylogenomic analysis of Apoidea sheds new light on the sister group of bees

Fig. 1

Possible phylogenetic relationships of the major apoid wasp lineages and of bees (Anthophila) as inferred in the present investigation and by Peters et al. (2017). Members of the apoid wasp family “Crabronidae” are scattered across eight major clades, whereby we combine Crabronidae: Dinetinae and Crabroninae to one clade: Crabronidae (marked by an asterisk). Numbers in brackets represent the number of taxa inluded in the analyses. Highlighted group names of Astatinae (red), Bembicinae (yellow) and Mellininae (green) show unambiguous sister group relationships, resulting in a total of three alternative tree topologies: (a) inferred from analyzing 284,607 nucleotide sites and applying a combination of protein domain – and codonbased partitioning scheme by modeling 1st, 2nd and 3rd codon positions separately, (b) inferred from analyzing 284,607 nucleotide sites and applying a combination of protein domain – and codon-based partitioning scheme by modeling 1st and 2nd codon position separately - 3rd codon position excluded, (c) inferred from analyzing 94,869 amino acid sites and applying a protein domain-based partitioning scheme, (d) inferred by Peters et al. (2017) and (e) inferred, including bootstrap support values by Branstetter et al. (2017)

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