Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 1 Proportions of simulations in which the most likely BiSSE model included character states affecting evolutionary rate when no such effect existed.

From: Binary-state speciation and extinction method is conditionally robust to realistic violations of its assumptions

Simulation model Simulation length λ μ q
Punc. Eq., μ decreasing 0.25 0.19*** 0.04 0.22***
0.5 0.05 0.02 0.08
0.75 0.02 0.07 0.08
1 0.03 0.05 0.13*
1.5 0.21*** 0.03 0.09
2 0.71*** 0.18*** 0.51***
Continuous, μ decreasing 0.25 0.06 0 0.06
0.5 0 0 0.03
0.75 0.04 0 0.02
1 0.1 0.01 0.03
1.5 0.55 0.04 0.14**
2 0.93*** 0.26*** 0.36***
Continuous, μ constant 0.25 0.03 0 0.04
0.5 0.03 0.04 0.05
0.75 0 0.02 0.05
1 0.14** 0.17*** 0.2***
1.5 0.25*** 0.23*** 0.25***
2 0.99*** 0.63*** 0.43***
Continuous, μ increasing 0.25 0.02 0 0.06
0.5 0.04 0.02 0.04
0.75 0.07 0.03 0.04
1 0.08 0.06 0.07
1.5 0.36*** 0.69*** 0.77***
2 0.99*** 0.95*** 0.45***
  1. The simulation model specifies the parameters we used to simulate the clade. The first (“Punc. Eq.”) set used a punctuated equilibrium simulation of character evolution wherein transitions between character states occur only during speciation events. The rest (“Continuous”) simulate character evolution wherein state changes are independent of speciation events. Our first two sets have both λ and μ declining with time as in Fig. 3a. The third has μ constant and only λ declining as in Fig. 3b. The final set has μ increasing as in Fig. 3c. Simulation length refers to the amount of simulated time that the program was run; one unit represents approximately the time needed for extinction to outpace origination (see Fig. 3). λ, μ, and q represent the rates (out of 100 runs) for a likelihood ratio test producing a statistically significant difference between the BiSSE models in which the character states affected the corresponding evolutionary rate versus those in which the character states had no effect. The significance threshold for our likelihood ratio test is α = 0.05. The number of asterisks indicates whether the rate at which the most likely BiSSE models include evolutionary rate asymmetry statistically exceeds than the expected rate following a sequential Bonferroni correction (+ P < 0.1, * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001). Abbreviations of λ, μ, and q are explained in Table 5