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Fig. 4 | BMC Evolutionary Biology

Fig. 4

From: Homeotic transformations reflect departure from the mammalian ‘rule of seven’ cervical vertebrae in sloths: inferences on the Hox code and morphological modularity of the mammalian neck

Fig. 4

Congenital anomalies were found in all analysed sloth specimens. Anterior view of different, 3D rendered CV with red arrow heads pointing to malformations. A, the last cervical vertebra (C6) of C. cf. didactylus 1 displays unilaterally a ventral process. B, the last cervical vertebra (C7) of C. didactylus 2 shows unilaterally a ventral process. C, lateral transverse processes of C7 and C8 in B. tridactylus are not developed symmetrically (C8 shown here). D, on the C5 in B. variegatus the foramina transversaria of are not entirely closed and transverse processes are not developed symmetrically

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