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Fig. 3 | BMC Evolutionary Biology

Fig. 3

From: A North American stem turaco, and the complex biogeographic history of modern birds

Fig. 3

ML ancestral area reconstructions for extant family-level non-passerine taxa with modern distributions restricted to vestiges of Gondwana (pink) or Laurasia (blue) (trees taken from posterior distribution Jetz et al. [67] using the Hackett et al. [45] backbone). (a) Only extant taxa included. (b) Both extant taxa and well-constrained Paleogene fossils included. Although the extant-only analysis infers a Gondwanan neornithine ancestor with high probability (consistent with [3, 4]), including Paleogene fossils renders the root node reconstruction ambiguous. Alternative analyses with modified fossil representation and biogeographic scorings are presented in the supplement. Labeled nodes correspond to major neornithine clades: 1 = Neornithes, 2 = Neognathae, 3 = Palaeognathae, 4 = Galloanserae, 5 = Neoaves

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