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Table 1 Fossil taxa included in biogeographic analysis, their closest crown group relatives, and stratigraphic age

From: A North American stem turaco, and the complex biogeographic history of modern birds

Fossil Taxon Crown sister Age (Ma) Locality References
Prefica nivea Steatornithidae 51.58 Green River Formation, USA Nesbitt et al. 2011
Sandcoleus copiosus Coliidae 56.22 Willwood Formation, USA Houde and Olson 1992, Ksepka and Clarke 2009
Palaeotodus cf. itardiensis Todidae 28.3 Escamps & Itardies, France Mayr and Knopf 2007, Mayr 2009
Foro panarium Musophagidae 51.58 Green River Formation, USA Olson 1992, This study
Lithornis celetius Tinamidae 56.8 Fort Union Formation, USA Houde 1988, Nesbitt and Clarke 2016 [143]
Plesiocathartes wyomingensis Leptosomidae 51.58 Green River Formation, USA Weidig 2006
Dynamopterus tuberculata Cariamidae 46.6 Messel, Germany Peters 1995, Mayr 2009, Mourer-Chauviré 2013
Protoazin parisiensis Opisthocomidae 34 Romainville, France Mayr and de Pietri 2014
Waimanu manneringi Spheniscidae 60.5 Waipara Greensand, New Zealand Slack et al. 2006
Paraprefica kelleri Nyctibiidae 47.5 Messel, Germany Nesbitt et al. 2011
Anatalavis oxfordi Anseranatidae 55 London Clay, United Kingdom Mayr 2008