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Table 1 Gene Diversity in three gene systems (NRY, HLA, and mtDNA)

From: Genetic diversity of the Thao people of Taiwan using Y-chromosome, mitochondrial DNA and HLA gene systems

Populations Gene Diversity
Y chromosome Mitochondrial DNA HLA A,B and DRB1
Y-SNP haplogroups ± SD Y-STR haplotypes  ± SD (7 STRs) mtDNA Haplogroups ± SD Aleles ± SD Haplotypes ± SD
Sinitic speakers East China Fujian 0.849 ± 0.017 0.979 ± 0.006 0.990 ± 0.001 0.894 ± 0.022 0.997 ± 0.003
Taiwan sinitic speaking groups Taiwan mixed sample 0.887 ± 0.007 0.999 ± 0.000 0.990 ± 0.000 0.879 ± 0.022 0.992 ± 0.001
Hakka 0.889 ± 0.020 0.985 ± 0.006 0.987 ± 0.002 0.892 ± 0.030 1.000 ± 0.002
Minnan 0.886 ± 0.013 0.987 ± 0.006 0.990 ± 0.001 0.893 ± 0.016 0.996 ± 0.002
All above 0.893 ± 0.006 0.983 ± 0.003 0.990 ± 0.001 0.882 ± 0.021 0.995 ± 0.001
Pazeh (Pingpu) 0.689 ± 0.020 0.941 ± 0.014 0.977 ± 0.006 0.878 ± 0.023 0.990 ± 0.005
Other Taiwan Plain tribes (Pingpu) 0.859 ± 0.008 0.994 ± 0.001 0.981 ± 0.001 0.833 ± 0.030 0.976 ± 0.004
Austronesian speakers Taiwan Austronesian speaking groups (Formosan) Northern Tribes Atayal 0.177 ± 0.049 0.518 ± 0.060 0.886 ± 0.012 0.809 ± 0.044 0.966 ± 0.004
Taroko 0.095 ± 0.062 0.447 ± 0.096 0.730 ± 0.025 0.813 ± 0.038 0.976 ± 0.004
Saisiyat 0.229 ± 0.080 0.775 ± 0.039 0.869 ± 0.014 0.728 ± 0.064 0.958 ± 0.008
Central tribes Thao 0.227 ± 0.095 0.351 ± 0.010 0.894 ± 0.023 0.788 ± 0.058 0.939 ± 0.017
Bunun 0.490 ± 0.025 0.886 ± 0.012 0.893 ± 0.008 0.768 ± 0.056 0.945 ± 0.014
Tsou 0.181 ± 0.056 0.318 ± 0.014 0.920 ± 0.010 0.692 ± 0.078 0.918 ± 0.015
Southern Tribes Amis 0.669 ± 0.025 0.909 ± 0.024 0.910 ± 0.013 0.702 ± 0.067 0.909 ± 0.010
Rukai 0.461 ± 0.060 0.905 ± 0.021 0.905 ± 0.012 0.686 ± 0.079 0.945 ± 0.014
Paiwan 0.701 ± 0.029 0.909 ± 0.024 0.929 ± 0.005 0.634 ± 0.076 0.917 ± 0.017
Puyuma 0.688 ± 0.048 0.968 ± 0.009 0.944 ± 0.005 0.785 ± 0.058 0.977 ± 0.006
Yami 0.627 ± 0.040 0.834 ± 0.023 0.852 ± 0.009 0.711 ± 0.063 0.875 ± 0.019
All TwMtA (no Thao) 0.603 ± 0.018 0.831 ± 0.017 0.965 ± 0.001 0.797 ± 0.010 0.979 ± 0.001
Malayo-polynesian speaking groups Batan (Ivatan) 0.726 ± 0.039 0.935 ± 0.018 0.923 ± 0.012 0.821 ± 0.037 0.963 ± 0.012
Philippines(no Batan) 0.893 ± 0.007 0.935 ± 0.018 0.952 ± 0.003 0.833 ± 0.023 0.998 ± 0.003