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Table 1 Gene Diversity in three gene systems (NRY, HLA, and mtDNA)

From: Genetic diversity of the Thao people of Taiwan using Y-chromosome, mitochondrial DNA and HLA gene systems

PopulationsGene Diversity
Y chromosomeMitochondrial DNAHLA A,B and DRB1
Y-SNP haplogroups ± SDY-STR haplotypes  ± SD (7 STRs)mtDNA Haplogroups ± SDAleles ± SDHaplotypes ± SD
Sinitic speakersEast ChinaFujian0.849 ± 0.0170.979 ± 0.0060.990 ± 0.0010.894 ± 0.0220.997 ± 0.003
Taiwan sinitic speaking groupsTaiwan mixed sample0.887 ± 0.0070.999 ± 0.0000.990 ± 0.0000.879 ± 0.0220.992 ± 0.001
Hakka0.889 ± 0.0200.985 ± 0.0060.987 ± 0.0020.892 ± 0.0301.000 ± 0.002
Minnan0.886 ± 0.0130.987 ± 0.0060.990 ± 0.0010.893 ± 0.0160.996 ± 0.002
All above0.893 ± 0.0060.983 ± 0.0030.990 ± 0.0010.882 ± 0.0210.995 ± 0.001
Pazeh (Pingpu)0.689 ± 0.0200.941 ± 0.0140.977 ± 0.0060.878 ± 0.0230.990 ± 0.005
Other Taiwan Plain tribes (Pingpu)0.859 ± 0.0080.994 ± 0.0010.981 ± 0.0010.833 ± 0.0300.976 ± 0.004
Austronesian speakersTaiwan Austronesian speaking groups (Formosan)Northern TribesAtayal0.177 ± 0.0490.518 ± 0.0600.886 ± 0.0120.809 ± 0.0440.966 ± 0.004
Taroko0.095 ± 0.0620.447 ± 0.0960.730 ± 0.0250.813 ± 0.0380.976 ± 0.004
Saisiyat0.229 ± 0.0800.775 ± 0.0390.869 ± 0.0140.728 ± 0.0640.958 ± 0.008
Central tribesThao0.227 ± 0.0950.351 ± 0.0100.894 ± 0.0230.788 ± 0.0580.939 ± 0.017
Bunun0.490 ± 0.0250.886 ± 0.0120.893 ± 0.0080.768 ± 0.0560.945 ± 0.014
Tsou0.181 ± 0.0560.318 ± 0.0140.920 ± 0.0100.692 ± 0.0780.918 ± 0.015
Southern TribesAmis0.669 ± 0.0250.909 ± 0.0240.910 ± 0.0130.702 ± 0.0670.909 ± 0.010
Rukai0.461 ± 0.0600.905 ± 0.0210.905 ± 0.0120.686 ± 0.0790.945 ± 0.014
Paiwan0.701 ± 0.0290.909 ± 0.0240.929 ± 0.0050.634 ± 0.0760.917 ± 0.017
Puyuma0.688 ± 0.0480.968 ± 0.0090.944 ± 0.0050.785 ± 0.0580.977 ± 0.006
Yami0.627 ± 0.0400.834 ± 0.0230.852 ± 0.0090.711 ± 0.0630.875 ± 0.019
All TwMtA (no Thao)0.603 ± 0.0180.831 ± 0.0170.965 ± 0.0010.797 ± 0.0100.979 ± 0.001
Malayo-polynesian speaking groupsBatan (Ivatan)0.726 ± 0.0390.935 ± 0.0180.923 ± 0.0120.821 ± 0.0370.963 ± 0.012
Philippines(no Batan)0.893 ± 0.0070.935 ± 0.0180.952 ± 0.0030.833 ± 0.0230.998 ± 0.003