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Fig. 5 | BMC Evolutionary Biology

Fig. 5

From: Systemic distribution of medullary bone in the avian skeleton: ground truthing criteria for the identification of reproductive tissues in extinct Avemetatarsalia

Fig. 5

Virtual (a-e, g) and ground (f, h) cross-sections of skeletal elements in six bird species. a: MB is present in the minute skeletal elements (humerus, radius, ulna are shown here) of the hummingbird Phaethornis superciliosus (CM-S8888). Note that the un-pneumatized humeri contain large amounts of MB. The caudal vertebrae visible here belong to Bonasa umbellus (CM-S16804); b: MB is present in the uncinate processes, but not in the rib shafts of Rhea americana (YPM-148246); c: MB is present in the tibiotarsi, but not the femora of Bonasa umbellus (CM-S16804); d: MB is present in the tibiotarsi, but not the femora of Micrastur ruficollis (CM-S9081); e: MB is visible in different skeletal elements of Cissa chinensis (CM-S14901), including the tarsometatarsi; f: Mid-diaphyseal cross-section of the tarsometatarsus of Cissa chinensis (CM-S14901); g: MB is present in all featured limb bones of Alisterus chloropterus (CM-S16123), including the humeri (not shown) and tarsometatarsi; h: cross-section of the tarsometatarsus of Alisterus chloropterus (CM-S16123). Abbreviations: CB, cortical bone; CMC, carpometacarpus; C. vert, caudal vertebra; Fem, femur; Hum, humerus; MB, medullary bone; Rad, radius; TMT, tarsometatarsus; TT, tibiotarsus; Ucin, ucinate process; Uln, ulna

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