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Table 1 PGLS results of single predictor variables on female promiscuity in Passerides songbirds

From: Evolution of female promiscuity in Passerides songbirds

Predictor variable N Estimate (SE) t (P) R 2 λ
Male parental care
 Nest building 173 − 0.399 (0.099) − 4.030 (< 0.001) 0.081 0.594
 Incubation 181 −0.308 (0.122) −2.525 (0.012) 0.029 0.497
 Chick feeding 174 −0.239 (0.157) −1.524 (0.129) 0.013 0.617
Plumage colouration
 Sexual dichromatisma 200 0.030 (0.010) 2.835 (0.005) 0.039 0.751
 Male coloura 200 0.014 (0.011) 1.296 (0.197) 0.008 0.784
 Female coloura 200 −0.036 (0.015) −2.359 (0.019) 0.027 0.694
Migratory behaviour
 Categoriesa 177 0.235 (0.079) 2.988 (0.003) 0.049 0.604
 Distance 202 0.326 (0.109) 3.006 (0.003)   
 (Distance)2 202 −0.040 (0.015) −2.729 (0.007) 0.044 0.711
 Body sizea 177 −0.037 (0.155) −0.237 (0.813) 0.000 0.694
 Tropical life historya 177 −0.176 (0.092) −1.916 (0.057) 0.021 0.649
 Latitude 202 0.001 (0.005) 0.264 (0.792) 0.000 0.761
 Tropical/temperate 202 0.267 (0.216) 1.235 (0.218) 0.008 0.734
 Social bondb 202 −0.368 (0.151) −2.441 (0.016) 0.029 0.723
 Sexual selectiona 177 0.236 (0.098) 2.408 (0.019) 0.017 0.655
 Cooperative breedinga 177 −0.016 (0.074) −0.211 (0.833) 0.000 0.691
  1. aData from Dale et al. [64]. b Data from Tobias et al. [65]. Significant P-values are indicated in bold. All λ-values were significantly different (P < 0.001) from λ = 0 and λ = 1. The results using the maximum clade credibility tree (Fig. 2) are shown. For results based on the 1000 phylogenetic trees, see Additional file 5