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Table 1 Summary of genes with a ‘root-to-tip’ dN/dS significantly correlated with indices of three kinds of bone (rib, humerus and vertebrae) and under positive selection (PSG) or divergent selection (DSG) in cetaceans

From: Accelerated evolution and diversifying selection drove the adaptation of cetacean bone microstructure

Gene Gene name Gene function Model Ref
Wnt pathway  
CTNNB1 Catenin β1 Intracellular signaling protein of the Wnt–β-catenin pathway DSG [43, 44]
FZD4 Frizzled Class Receptor 4 Receptor for Wnt proteins DSG
DVL3 Dishevelled Segment Polarity Protein 3 Signal transduction protein in Wnt pathway DSG
FSHR Follicle Stimulating Hormone Receptor FSHR is located in osteoclasts, FSH stimulates osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption PSG [45]
Collagen protein
COL1A2 Collagen Type I Alpha 2 Chain Abundant and widespread: dermis, bone, tendon, ligament PSG (rib) [46]
COL2A1 Collagen Type II Alpha 1 Chain Cartilage, vitreous DSG
COL3A1 Collagen Type III Alpha 1 Chain Skin, blood vessels, intestine PSG, DSG (rib)
COL5A2 Collagen Type V Alpha 2 Chain Bone, dermis, cornea, placenta DSG (humerus)
COL9A1 Collagen Type IX Alpha 1 Chain Cartilage, cornea, vitreous DSG
SPARC Osteonectin Required for the collagen in bone to become calcified DSG [47, 48]
Osteoblast differentiation and function
HES1 Hes Family BHLH Transcription Factor 1 Inhibiting osteoblast function and inducing bone resorption DSG [49]
RUNX2 Runt-related transcription factor 2 Transcription factor driving osteoblastogenesis DSG [50, 51]
MEPE Matrix Extracellular Phosphoglycoprotein Mineralization, phosphate regulation and osteogenesis. PSG [52]
STAT1 Signal Transducer and Activator Of Transcription 1 An important role in endochondral bone formation and chondrocyte differentiation DSG [53]
Osteoclast differentiation and function
TEC Tec Protein Tyrosine Kinase Activated by RANKL and Indispensable for osteoclastogenesis DSG, PSG (humerus) [54]
LCP2 Lymphocyte Cytosolic Protein 2 Adaptor molecules in osteoclastogenesis DSG (humerus)
FOSL1 FOS Like 1, AP-1 Transcription Factor Subunit Induces transcription of Fosl1 in osteoclast differentiation DSG (humerus) [55]
IFNAR1 Interferon Alpha and Beta Receptor Subunit 1 Regulating osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption PSG [56]
MITF Melanogenesis Associated Transcription Factor Nuclear activity of osteoclast PSG (humerus) [57]
TNFRSF1A TNF Receptor Superfamily Member 1A TNF-α inhibit osteoblast differentiation and active osteoclastogenesis through TNFRSF1A PSG (rib) [58]