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Table 3 Results of analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) between regions and populations of Pinus cembra.

From: Geographic isolation and climatic variability contribute to genetic differentiation in fragmented populations of the long-lived subalpine conifer Pinus cembra L. in the western Alps

Spatial scale Source of variation D.f. Sum of square Mean square Estimated variance Variance (%) Fixation index (FST)
Pop vs. Pop among pop. 21 256.352 12.207 0.152 6% 0.065**
within pop. 1432 3130.567 2.186 2.186 94%  
total 1453 3386.920   2.338 100%  
Central vs. Marginal among regions 1 16.642 16.642 0.020 0.8% 0.008**
within regions 1452 3370.277 2.321 2.321 99.2%  
total 1453 3386.920   2.341 100%  
  1. significance calculated with 999 permutations: **p < 0.01