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Table 4 Results of standard Mantel tests, partial-Mantel tests and Multiple Matrix Regression with Randomization (MMRR) analyses

From: Geographic isolation and climatic variability contribute to genetic differentiation in fragmented populations of the long-lived subalpine conifer Pinus cembra L. in the western Alps

Test Parameters R β p
Mantel Gen vs. Geo 0.423 0.001***
Gen vs. Clim 0.319 0.009***
partial-Mantel Gen vs. Geo (Clim) 0.269 0.011**
Gen vs. Clim (Geo) 0.313 0.020**
MMRR Gen vs. Geo + Clim 0.342 Geo: 0.002 0.531ns
   Clim: 0.004 0.002***
Gen vs. Geo + Alt 0.200 Geo: 0.011 0.001***
   Alt: 0.004 0.205ns
  1. significance calculated with 999 permutations: **p < 0.05, ***p < 0.01, ns; not significant
  2. Gen, genetic distance (FST); Geo, geographic distance; Clim, climatic distance partial-Mantel tests: X ~ Y(Z) is the correlation between X and Y matrices, controlling for Z