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Table 1 Flat periwinkle samples analyzed in this study. Shown is the locality and country of origin, together with year of collection, geographical coordinates and habitat type. Locality codes include “o” or “f” as prefix when corresponding to L. obtusata or L. fabalis samples, respectively, followed by the initials of the country where samples were collected (Fig. 1). N: sample size (specified by sex: mal, males; fem, females), as the initial number of individuals considered for analysis, followed by the final number of individuals retained in each dataset (COI + Cyt-b: concatenated cytochrome oxidase subunit I and cytochrome b; Thio: thioredoxin peroxidase 2; Cal: calreticulin)

From: Phylogeographic history of flat periwinkles, Littorina fabalis and L. obtusata

LocalityCountryYear ofCoordinatesWave Exposure /CodeN InitialN COI + Cyt-bN ThioN Cal
  CollectionLatitudeLongitudeHabitat (mal/fem)(mal/fem)(mal/fem)(mal/fem)
L. obtusata
NahantMassachusetts (USA)200542°25′41.22″N70°55′43.26″WNA(1) oUS112 (NA)10 (NA)11 (NA)8 (NA)
Quoddy HeadMaine (USA)200544°48′49.74″N66°57′3.66″WNA(2) oUS212 (NA)8 (NA)11 (NA)6 (NA)
SandgerdiIceland200564° 2′0.27″N22°44′11.82″WNA(3) oIC12 (NA)10 (NA)11 (NA)7 (NA)
Shetland IslandsScotland (UK)200759°53′6.04″N1°17′10.71″WNA(4) oSC12 (NA)9 (NA)12 (NA)1 (NA)
Seløyna 1Norway201260°38′13.62″N4°47′33.72″ESheltered(5) oNO129 (12/17)15 (9/6)11 (9/2)8 (7/1)
Seløyna 2Norway201260°38′7.08″N4°47′32.94″EExposed(6) oNO24 (2/2)3 (1/2)3 (1/2)3 (1/2)
Lökholmen 1Sweden201258°53′21.98″N11° 6′38.61″ESheltered(7) oSW112 (9/3)12 (9/3)11 (8/3)10 (7/3)
Lökholmen 2Sweden201258°53′20.29″N11° 6′31.94″EExposed(8) oSW212 (10/2)12 (10/2)12 (10/2)8 (8/0)
Anglesey South 1Wales (UK)201253°25′20.30″N4°22′7.86″WSheltered(9) oWA112 (8/4)12 (8/4)9 (6/3)11 (8/3)
Anglesey South 2Wales (UK)201253°25′5.74″N4°27′10.82″WExposed(10) oWA212 (7/5)9 (6/3)11 (7/4)7 (6/1)
BaionaSpain201242° 7′26.93″N8°50′51.35″WSheltered(16) oSP340 (28/12)34 (24/10)11 (11/0)11 (11/0)
Rio de MoinhosPortugal201241°34′4.05″N8°47′51.81″WSheltered(17) oPT140 (30/10)32 (24/8)10 (10/0)4 (4/0)
Total      20916612384
L. fabalis
SandgerdiIcleand200564° 2′0.27″N22°44′11.82″WNA(3) fIC12 (NA)3 (NA)5 (NA)0
Seløyna 1Norway201260°38′13.62″N4°47′33.72″ESheltered(5) fNO126 (6/20)12 (4/8)5 (2/3)2 (1/1)
Seløyna 2Norway201260°38′7.08″N4°47′32.94″EExposed(6) fNO212 (7/5)8 (5/3)7 (6/1)5 (3/2)
Lökholmen 1Sweden201258°53′21.98″N11° 6′38.61″ESheltered(7) fSW112 (12/0)11 (11/0)8 (8/0)8 (8/0)
Lökholmen 2Sweden201258°53′20.29″N11° 6′31.94″EExposed(8) fSW212 (12/0)11 (11/0)8 (8/0)9 (9/0)
Anglesey South 1Wales (UK)201253°25′20.30″N4°22′7.86″WSheltered(9) fWA112 (12/0)9 (9/0)6 (6/0)0
Anglesey South 2Wales (UK)201253°25′5.74″N4°27′10.82″WExposed(10) fWA212 (12/0)9 (9/0)5 (5/0)4 (4/0)
Minard CastleIreland201252° 7′12.00″N10° 6′36.00″WNA(11) fIR12 (12/0)7 (7/0)2 (2/0)3 (3/0)
WemburyEngland (UK)201250°18′36.00″N4° 5′60.00″WNA(12) fEN12 (12/0)7 (7/0)2 (2/0)2 (2/0)
LandunvezFrance201248°32′24.00″N4°44′24.00″WNA(13) fFR12 (12/0)8 (8/0)6 (6/0)0
O GroveSpain201242°27′45.45″N8°52′20.59″WZostera-Sheltered(14) fSP125 (17/8)21 (14/7)9 (9/0)4 (4/0)
TiránSpain201242°15′48.01″N8°45′11.63″WFucus-Intermediate(15) fSP240 (31/9)29 (22/7)5 (4/1)2 (1/1)
Póvoa de VarzimPortugal201241°23′7.24″N8°45′88.30″WMastocarpus-Exposed(18) fPT224 (12/12)22 (10/12)10 (7/3)3 (3/0)
Total      2231577842
Cabo do MundoaPortugal201241°13′33.78″N8°43′3.05″WSheltered(19) PT330 (19/11)21 (12/9)24 (13/11)7 (5/2)
  1. aLocality where hybrids between L. fabalis and L. obtusata were previously identified based on microsatellites (see [31])
  2. NA not available; Sampling locations code letters stand for the country: US USA, IC Iceland, NO Norway, SW Sweden, WA Wales, SP Spain, PT Portugal, IR Ireland, EN England, FR France