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Table 4 Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA, 3-level) after grouping populations by geographic region within L. fabalis (upper part) and L. obtusata (lower part), based on mtDNA after removing putatively introgressed individuals. fNE1 – L. fabalis from northern Europe, fNE2 – L. fabalis from central Europe, fIP – L. fabalis from Iberian Peninsula. oN – L. obtusata from North America and from northern-central Europe, oIP – L. obtusata from Iberian Peninsula. Geographic groups were defined according to Fig. 4

From: Phylogeographic history of flat periwinkles, Littorina fabalis and L. obtusata

SpeciesStructureSource of variationd.f.Variance components% Variationφ-statisticsp-value
L. fabalisGroup 1Among groups22.401156.710.56710.0010
fNE1 by popAmong populations within groups90.794118.760.43230.0000
Group 2Within populations1041.038624.530.75470.0000
fNE2 by pop      
Group 3      
fIP by pop      
L. obtusataGroup 1Among groups17.558773.050.73050.0137
oN by popAmong populations within groups100.86918.400.31160.0000
Group 2Within populations1491.919818.550.73050.0000
oIP by pop      
  1. φ-statistics presented in the following order: ΦCT (up), ΦSC (middle) and ΦST (low)
  2. d.f. degrees of freedom