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Table 1 Repeated measures ANOVAs of the effects of starting frequency (rare or common) and environmental conditions (homogenous or heterogeneous) on changes in the frequency of mtDNA haplotype HI and the strength of frequency dependent selection in the experimental evolution lines. Generation represents the within-line effect of generation 0–5 versus 5–10

From: Negative frequency dependent selection contributes to the maintenance of a global polymorphism in mitochondrial DNA

 Frequency change of HI (Δf)Frequency dependent selection coefficient (SI)
Between-line effects:dfMSFPPpermadfMSFPPperma
Starting frequency (SF)11.1E-028.0910.0220.02112.1E-020.0480.8320.849
Environment (E)11.5E-031.1230.3200.33614.5E-020.1040.7560.786
SF × E11.8E-031.4020.2700.27612.3E+ 005.3940.0490.034
Residual81.3E-03   84.3E-01   
Within-line effects:
 Generation (G)14.5E-060.0010.972 12.1E-010.3080.594 
 G × SF12.4E-060.0010.979 14.0E-010.5850.466 
 G × E11.4E-040.0430.842 11.5E-010.2140.656 
 G × SF × E14.9E-040.1460.713 11.6E+ 002.3480.164 
 Residual83.4E-03   86.8E-01   
  1. a Permutation tests of between-line effects
  2. Both entries in bold face are significant at alpha = 0.05