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  1. Insecticide resistance is now common in insects due to the frequent use of chemicals to control them, which provides a useful tool to study the adaptation of eukaryotic genome to new environments. Although num...

    Authors: Ming An Shi, Andrée Lougarre, Carole Alies, Isabelle Frémaux, Zhen Hua Tang, Jure Stojan and Didier Fournier

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004 4:5

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  2. Organophosphate and carbamate insecticides irreversibly inhibit acetylcholinesterase causing death of insects. Resistance-modified acetylcholinesterases(AChEs) have been described in many insect species and se...

    Authors: Philippe Menozzi, Ming An Shi, Andrée Lougarre, Zhen Hua Tang and Didier Fournier

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004 4:4

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Vertebrate genes often appear to cluster within the background of nontranscribed genomic DNA. Here an analysis of the physical distribution of gene structures on human chromosome 7 was performed to confirm the...

    Authors: Wayne S Kendal

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004 4:3

    Content type: Research article

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  4. The pattern and timing of the rise in complex multicellular life during Earth's history has not been established. Great disparity persists between the pattern suggested by the fossil record and that estimated ...

    Authors: S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004 4:2

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Many studies in evolutionary biology and genetics are limited by the rate at which phenotypic information can be acquired. The wings of Drosophila species are a favorable target for automated analysis because ...

    Authors: David Houle, Jason Mezey, Paul Galpern and Ashley Carter

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2003 3:25

    Content type: Methodology article

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  6. The widespread introduction of amino acid substitutions into organismal proteomes has occurred during natural evolution, but has been difficult to achieve by directed evolution. The adaptation of the translati...

    Authors: Jamie M Bacher, James J Bull and Andrew D Ellington

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2003 3:24

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Models of the maintenance of sex predict that one reproductive strategy, sexual or parthenogenetic, should outcompete the other. Distribution patterns may reflect the outcome of this competition as well as the...

    Authors: Norbert Pongratz, Martin Storhas, Salvador Carranza and Nicolaas K Michiels

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2003 3:23

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Analytical methods have been proposed to determine whether there are evolutionarily stable strategies (ESS) for a trait of ecological significance, or whether there is disruptive selection in a population appr...

    Authors: Émile Ajar

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2003 3:22

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Several studies have suggested that proteins that interact with more partners evolve more slowly. The strength and validity of this association has been called into question. Here we investigate how biases in ...

    Authors: Jesse D Bloom and Christoph Adami

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2003 3:21

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Drosophila nasuta nasuta (2n = 8) and Drosophila nasuta albomicans (2n = 6) are a pair of sibling allopatric chromosomal cross-fertile races of the nasuta subgroup of immigrans species group of Drosophila. Interr...

    Authors: Ballagere P Harini and Nallur B Ramachandra

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2003 3:20

    Content type: Research article

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  11. The binding sites of sequence specific transcription factors are an important and relatively well-understood class of functional non-coding DNAs. Although a wide variety of experimental and computational metho...

    Authors: Alan M Moses, Derek Y Chiang, Manolis Kellis, Eric S Lander and Michael B Eisen

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2003 3:19

    Content type: Research article

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  12. The ars gene system provides arsenic resistance for a variety of microorganisms and can be chromosomal or plasmid-borne. The arsC gene, which codes for an arsenate reductase is essential for arsenate resistance a...

    Authors: Colin R Jackson and Sandra L Dugas

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2003 3:18

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Dof proteins are a family of plant-specific transcription factors that contain a particular class of zinc-finger DNA-binding domain. Members of this family have been found to play diverse roles in gene regulat...

    Authors: Diego Lijavetzky, Pilar Carbonero and Jesús Vicente-Carbajosa

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2003 3:17

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Phylogenetic hypotheses of higher-level relationships in the order Charadriiformes based on morphological data, partly disagree with those based on DNA-DNA hybridisation data. So far, these relationships have ...

    Authors: Per GP Ericson, Ida Envall, Martin Irestedt and Janette A Norman

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2003 3:16

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Genomic imprinting refers to the differential expression of genes inherited from the mother and father (matrigenes and patrigenes). The kinship theory of genomic imprinting treats parent-specific gene expressi...

    Authors: David C Queller

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2003 3:15

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Lateral gene transfer can introduce genes with novel functions into genomes or replace genes with functionally similar orthologs or paralogs. Here we present a study of the occurrence of the latter gene replac...

    Authors: Jan O Andersson and Andrew J Roger

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2003 3:14

    Content type: Research article

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  17. A key event in the origin of life on this planet has been formation of self-replicating RNA-type molecules, which were complex enough to undergo a Darwinian-type evolution (origin of the "RNA world"). However,...

    Authors: Armen Y Mulkidjanian, Dmitry A Cherepanov and Michael Y Galperin

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2003 3:12

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Swarm-founding epiponine wasps are an intriguing group of social insects in which colonies are polygynic (several queens share reproduction) and differentiation between castes is often not obvious. However, ca...

    Authors: Mário V Baio, Fernando B Noll and Ronaldo Zucchi

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2003 3:10

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  19. Aminoadipate reductase (Lys2) is a fungal-specific protein. This enzyme contains an adenylating domain. A similar primary structure can be found in some bacterial antibiotic/peptide synthetases. In this study,...

    Authors: Kwang-Deuk An, Hiromi Nishida, Yoshiharu Miura and Akira Yokota

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2003 3:9

    Content type: Research article

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  20. The study of organisms with restricted dispersal abilities and presence in the fossil record is particularly adequate to understand the impact of climate changes on the distribution and genetic structure of sp...

    Authors: Markus Pfenninger, David Posada and Frédéric Magnin

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2003 3:8

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Runx genes encode proteins defined by the highly conserved Runt DNA-binding domain. Studies of Runx genes and proteins in model organisms indicate that they are key transcriptional regulators of animal develop...

    Authors: Jessica Rennert, James A Coffman, Arcady R Mushegian and Anthony J Robertson

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2003 3:4

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  22. The rate at which fitness declines as an organism's genome accumulates random mutations is an important variable in several evolutionary theories. At an intuitive level, it might seem natural that random mutat...

    Authors: Claus O Wilke, Richard E Lenski and Christoph Adami

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2003 3:3

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Comparative analysis of sequenced genomes reveals numerous instances of apparent horizontal gene transfer (HGT), at least in prokaryotes, and indicates that lineage-specific gene loss might have been even more...

    Authors: Boris G Mirkin, Trevor I Fenner, Michael Y Galperin and Eugene V Koonin

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2003 3:2

    Content type: Research article

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  24. It has been suggested that rates of protein evolution are influenced, to a great extent, by the proportion of amino acid residues that are directly involved in protein function. In agreement with this hypothes...

    Authors: I King Jordan, Yuri I Wolf and Eugene V Koonin

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2003 3:1

    Content type: Research article

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Evolutionary Biology 2003 3:5

  25. In general, the length of a protein sequence is determined by its function and the wide variance in the lengths of an organism's proteins reflects the diversity of specific functional roles for these proteins....

    Authors: David J Lipman, Alexander Souvorov, Eugene V Koonin, Anna R Panchenko and Tatiana A Tatusova

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2002 2:20

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Experimental populations of Escherichia coli have evolved for 20,000 generations in a uniform environment. Their rate of improvement, as measured in competitions with the ancestor in that environment, has decline...

    Authors: J Arjan GM de Visser and Richard E Lenski

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2002 2:19

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  27. Power distributions appear in numerous biological, physical and other contexts, which appear to be fundamentally different. In biology, power laws have been claimed to describe the distributions of the connect...

    Authors: Georgy P Karev, Yuri I Wolf, Andrey Y Rzhetsky, Faina S Berezovskaya and Eugene V Koonin

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2002 2:18

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Subtribe Artemisiinae of Tribe Anthemideae (Asteraceae) is composed of 18 largely Asian genera that include the sagebrushes and mugworts. The subtribe includes the large cosmopolitan, wind-pollinated genus Artemi...

    Authors: Linda E Watson, Paul L Bates, Timothy M Evans, Matthew M Unwin and James R Estes

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2002 2:17

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  29. The Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) is a widely used paradigm to study cooperation in evolutionary biology, as well as in fields as diverse as moral philosophy, sociology, economics and politics. Players are typically...

    Authors: Dominic DP Johnson, Pavel Stopka and Josh Bell

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2002 2:15

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  30. Little is known about phytoplankton communities inhabiting low pH environments such as volcanic and geothermal sites or acidic waters. Only specialised organisms are able to tolerate such extreme conditions. T...

    Authors: Volker AR Huss, Claudia Ciniglia, Paola Cennamo, Salvatore Cozzolino, Gabriele Pinto and Antonino Pollio

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2002 2:13

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Pyridine-2,6-bis(thiocarboxylic acid) (pdtc) is a small secreted metabolite that has a high affinity for transition metals, increases iron uptake efficiency by 20% in Pseudomonas stutzeri, has the ability to redu...

    Authors: Marc S Cortese, Allan B Caplan and Ronald L Crawford

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2002 2:8

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  32. The complete genomes of three animals have been sequenced by global research efforts: a nematode worm (Caenorhabditis elegans), an insect (Drosophila melanogaster), and a vertebrate (Homo sapiens). Remarkably, th...

    Authors: Jaime E Blair, Kazuho Ikeo, Takashi Gojobori and S Blair Hedges

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2002 2:7

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  33. In fungi, aminoadipate reductase converts 2-aminoadipate to 2-aminoadipate 6-semialdehyde. However, other organisms have no homologue to the aminoadipate reductase gene and this pathway appears to be restricte...

    Authors: Kwang-Deuk An, Hiromi Nishida, Yoshiharu Miura and Akira Yokota

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2002 2:6

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  34. The potential adaptive significance of transposable elements (TEs) to the host genomes in which they reside is a topic that has been hotly debated by molecular evolutionists for more than two decades. Recent g...

    Authors: Andrea M McCollum, Eric W Ganko, Paula A Barrass, Jose M Rodriguez and John F McDonald

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2002 2:5

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  35. Phylogenetic relationships of the genus Hapalemur remains controversial, particularly within the Hapalemur griseus species group. In order to obtain more information on the taxonomic status within this genus, and...

    Authors: Jean-Luc Fausser, Prosper Prosper, Giuseppe Donati, Jean-Baptiste Ramanamanjato and Yves Rumpler

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2002 2:4

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  36. Factors that affect flowering vary among different plant species, and in the grasses in particular the exact mechanism behind this transition is not fully understood. The brown midrib (bm) mutants of maize (Zea m...

    Authors: Wilfred Vermerris, Karen J Thompson, Lauren M McIntyre and John D Axtell

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2002 2:2

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

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