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  1. The origin of turtles and crocodiles and their easily recognized body forms dates to the Triassic and Jurassic. Despite their long-term success, extant species diversity is low, and endangerment is extremely h...

    Authors: Timothy J. Colston, Pallavi Kulkarni, Walter Jetz and R. Alexander Pyron

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:81

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  2. Fangs are a putative key innovation that revolutionized prey capture and feeding in snakes, and – along with their associated venom phenotypes – have made snakes perhaps the most medically-significant vertebra...

    Authors: Erin P. Westeen, Andrew M. Durso, Michael C. Grundler, Daniel L. Rabosky and Alison R. Davis Rabosky

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:80

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  3. Metamorphosis remains one of the most complicated and poorly understood processes in insects. This is particularly so for the very dynamic transformations that take place within the pupal sheath of holometabol...

    Authors: Chenjing Zhao, Yuchen Ang, Mengqing Wang, Caixia Gao, Kuiyan Zhang, Chufei Tang, Xingyue Liu, Min Li, Ding Yang and Rudolf Meier

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:79

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Tree squirrels (Sciuridae, Sciurini), in particular the highly diverse Neotropical lineages, are amongst the most rapidly diversifying branches of the mammal tree of life but also some of the least known. Negl...

    Authors: Edson Fiedler de Abreu-Jr, Silvia E. Pavan, Mirian T. N. Tsuchiya, Don E. Wilson, Alexandre R. Percequillo and Jesús E. Maldonado

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:77

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Poecilogony, the presence of two developmental modes in the same animal species, is a rare phenomenon. Few cases of poecilogony have been suggested for marine invertebrates including molluscs and even less sto...

    Authors: Benedikt Wiggering, Marco T. Neiber, Katharina Gebauer and Matthias Glaubrecht

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:76

    Content type: Research article

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  6. We hypothesize prebiotic evolution of self-replicating macro-molecules (Alberts, Molecular biology of the cell, 2015; Orgel, Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 39:99-123, 2004; Hud, Nat Commun 9:5171) favoured the cons...

    Authors: Hemachander Subramanian, Joel Brown and Robert Gatenby

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:75

    Content type: Research article

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  7. The New World Tropics has experienced a dynamic landscape across evolutionary history and harbors a high diversity of flora and fauna. While there are some studies addressing diversification in Neotropical ver...

    Authors: Melissa Sánchez-Herrera, Christopher D. Beatty, Renato Nunes, Camilo Salazar and Jessica L. Ware

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:74

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Small leucine-rich repeat protein (SLRP) family members contain conserved leucine-rich repeat motifs flanked by highly variable N- and C-terminal regions. Most class II and III SLRPs have tyrosine-rich N-termi...

    Authors: Morten M. Jensen and Henrik Karring

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:73

    Content type: Research article

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  9. The remarkable abilities of the human brain are distinctive features that set us apart from other animals. However, our understanding of how the brain has changed in the human lineage remains incomplete, but i...

    Authors: Ming-Li Li, Hui Tang, Yong Shao, Ming-Shan Wang, Hai-Bo Xu, Sheng Wang, David M. Irwin, Adeniyi C. Adeola, Tao Zeng, Luonan Chen, Yan Li and Dong-Dong Wu

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:72

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  10. Disentangling the drivers of genetic differentiation is one of the cornerstones in evolution. This is because genetic diversity, and the way in which it is partitioned within and among populations across space...

    Authors: Antonio R. Castilla, Belén Méndez-Vigo, Arnald Marcer, Joaquín Martínez-Minaya, David Conesa, F. Xavier Picó and Carlos Alonso-Blanco

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:71

    Content type: Research article

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  11. East African lake cichlids are one of the most impressive examples of an adaptive radiation. Independently in Lake Victoria, Tanganyika, and Malawi, several hundreds of species arose within the last 10 million...

    Authors: Luca Penso-Dolfin, Angela Man, Tarang Mehta, Wilfried Haerty and Federica Di Palma

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:69

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Lipids contained in milk are an essential source of energy and structural materials for a growing neonate. Furthermore, lipids’ long-chain unsaturated fatty acid residues can directly participate in neonatal t...

    Authors: Aleksandra Mitina, Pavel Mazin, Anna Vanyushkina, Nikolay Anikanov, Waltraud Mair, Song Guo and Philipp Khaitovich

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:70

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  13. Mygalomorph spiders represent a diverse, yet understudied lineage for which genomic level data has only recently become accessible through high-throughput genomic and transcriptomic sequencing methods. The Aptost...

    Authors: Nicole L. Garrison, Michael S. Brewer and Jason E. Bond

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:68

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Cysteine-RIch Secretory Proteins (CRISP) are expressed in the reproductive tract of mammalian males and are involved in fertilization and related processes. Due to their important role in sperm performance and...

    Authors: Lena Arévalo, Nicolás G. Brukman, Patricia S. Cuasnicú and Eduardo R. S. Roldan

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:67

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Alternative splicing (AS) generates various transcripts from a single gene and thus plays a significant role in transcriptomic diversity and proteomic complexity. Alu elements are primate-specific transposable el...

    Authors: Se-Hee Choe, Sang-Je Park, Hyeon-Mu Cho, Hye-Ri Park, Ja-Rang Lee, Young-Hyun Kim and Jae-Won Huh

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:66

    Content type: Research article

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  16. The latest advancements in DNA sequencing technologies have facilitated the resolution of the phylogeny of insects, yet parts of the tree of Holometabola remain unresolved. The phylogeny of Neuropterida has be...

    Authors: Alexandros Vasilikopoulos, Bernhard Misof, Karen Meusemann, Doria Lieberz, Tomáš Flouri, Rolf G. Beutel, Oliver Niehuis, Torsten Wappler, Jes Rust, Ralph S. Peters, Alexander Donath, Lars Podsiadlowski, Christoph Mayer, Daniela Bartel, Alexander Böhm, Shanlin Liu…

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:64

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  17. Local coexistence of distinct, genetically determined color morphs can be unstable and transitional. Stable, long-term coexistence requires some form of balancing selection to protect morphs from getting lost ...

    Authors: Holger Schielzeth and Petra Dieker

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:63

    Content type: Research article

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  18. The Chengjiang biota is one of the most species-rich Cambrian Konservat-Lagerstätten, and preserves a community dominated by non-biomineralized euarthropods. However, several Chengjiang euarthropods have an un...

    Authors: Yu Liu, Javier Ortega-Hernández, Hong Chen, Huijuan Mai, Dayou Zhai and Xianguang Hou

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:62

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  19. Invasion of organisms into new ecosystems is increasingly common, due to the global trade in commodities. One of the most complex post-invasion scenarios occurs when an invasive species is related to a native ...

    Authors: Erick M. G. Cordeiro, Laura M. Pantoja-Gomez, Julia B. de Paiva, Antônio R. B. Nascimento, Celso Omoto, Andrew P. Michel and Alberto S. Correa

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:61

    Content type: Research article

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  20. The black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae, Hermetia illucens) is renowned for its bioconversion ability of organic matter, and is the worldwide most widely used source of insect protein. Despite varying exten...

    Authors: Gunilla Ståhls, Rudolf Meier, Christoph Sandrock, Martin Hauser, Ljiljana Šašić Zorić, Elina Laiho, Andrea Aracil, Jovana Doderović, Rozane Badenhorst, Phira Unadirekkul, Nur Arina Binte Mohd Adom, Leo Wein, Cameron Richards, Jeffery K. Tomberlin, Santos Rojo, Sanja Veselić…

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:60

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Functional constraint through genomic architecture is suggested to be an important dimension of genome evolution, but quantitative evidence for this idea is rare. In this contribution, existing evidence and di...

    Authors: Katharina C. Wollenberg Valero

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:58

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Amino acid substitution models play an important role in inferring phylogenies from proteins. Although different amino acid substitution models have been proposed, only a few were estimated from mitochondrial ...

    Authors: Huihui Chang, Yimeng Nie, Nan Zhang, Xue Zhang, Huimin Sun, Ying Mao, Zhongying Qiu and Yuan Huang

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:57

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Amylase gene clusters have been implicated in adaptive copy number changes in response to the amount of starch in the diet of humans and mammals. However, this interpretation has been questioned for humans and...

    Authors: Miriam Linnenbrink, Kristian K. Ullrich, Ellen McConnell and Diethard Tautz

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:56

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Meiosis is essential for sexual reproduction and generates genetically diverse haploid gametes from a diploid germ cell. Reduction of ploidy depends on active chromosome movements during early meiotic prophase...

    Authors: Irene da Cruz, Céline Brochier-Armanet and Ricardo Benavente

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:55

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Ever since Darwin, evolutionary biologists have studied sexual selection driving differences in appearance and behaviour between males and females. An unchallenged paradigm in such studies is that one sex (usu...

    Authors: Ke Gao, Michiel van Wijk, Zoe Clement, Martijn Egas and Astrid T. Groot

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:53

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  26. Raw second-generation (2G) lignocellulosic biomass materials have the potential for development into a sustainable and renewable source of energy. Poplar is regarded as a promising 2G material (P. davidiana Dode×...

    Authors: Xin Zhang, Chenrui Gu, Tianxu Zhang, Botong Tong, Heng Zhang, Yueliang Wu and Chuanping Yang

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:51

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  27. Photosymbiotic associations between metazoan hosts and photosynthetic dinoflagellates are crucial to the trophic and structural integrity of many marine ecosystems, including coral reefs. Although extensive ef...

    Authors: Jingchun Li, Sarah Lemer, Lisa Kirkendale, Rüdiger Bieler, Colleen Cavanaugh and Gonzalo Giribet

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:50

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  28. Distichodus is a clade of tropical freshwater fishes currently comprising 25 named species distributed continent-wide throughout the Nilo-Sudan and most Sub-Saharan drainages. This study investigates the phylogen...

    Authors: Jairo Arroyave, John S. S. Denton and Melanie L. J. Stiassny

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:48

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  29. Tooth morphology within theropod dinosaurs has been extensively investigated and shows high disparity throughout the Cretaceous. Changes or diversification in feeding ecology, i.e., adoption of an herbivorous ...

    Authors: Zhiheng Li, Chun-Chieh Wang, Min Wang, Cheng-Cheng Chiang, Yan Wang, Xiaoting Zheng, E-Wen Huang, Kiko Hsiao and Zhonghe Zhou

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:46

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  30. Copepods are key components of aquatic ecosystems and can help regulate the global carbon cycle. Much attention has been paid to the species diversity of copepods worldwide, but the phylogeography and genetic ...

    Authors: Yijun Ni, Chike Chukwuenyem Ebido, Elijah Chibueze Odii, Jinhui Wang, Chinemerem Hodges Orakwelu, Francis Chukwuemeka Abonyi, Chinedu Innocent Ngene, Joseph Onyekwere Okoro, Patience Obiageli Ubachukwu, Wei Hu and Mingbo Yin

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:45

    Content type: Research article

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  31. The Mexican hand tree or Canac (Chiranthodendron pentadactylon) is a temperate tree species of cloud and pine-oak forests of southern Mexico and Guatemala. Its characteristic hand-shaped flower is used in folk me...

    Authors: Diana Gabriela Hernández-Langford, María Elena Siqueiros-Delgado and Eduardo Ruíz-Sánchez

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:44

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Parasites may mediate the success of biological invasions through their effect on host fitness and thus, on host population growth and stability. However, a release from the pressure of parasites is strongly r...

    Authors: Aleksandra Biedrzycka, Marcin Popiołek and Andrzej Zalewski

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:43

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Olfactory receptors (ORs) are G protein-coupled receptors with a crucial role in odor detection. A typical mammalian genome harbors ~ 1000 OR genes and pseudogenes; however, different gene duplication/deletion...

    Authors: Tsviya Olender, Tamsin E. M. Jones, Elspeth Bruford and Doron Lancet

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:42

    Content type: Methodology article

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  34. Advances in next-generation sequencing technologies have reduced the cost of whole transcriptome analyses, allowing characterization of non-model species at unprecedented levels. The rapid pace of transcriptom...

    Authors: Dustin J. Wcisel, J. Thomas Howard III, Jeffrey A. Yoder and Alex Dornburg

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:41

    Content type: Software

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  35. Evolutionary transitions in temporal niche necessitates specialized morphology, physiology, and behaviors. Diurnal, heliothermic squamates (lizards and snakes) that bask require protection from ultraviolet rad...

    Authors: Aaron H. Griffing, Tony Gamble and Aaron M. Bauer

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:40

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Chromosomal rearrangements are thought to be an important driving force underlying lineage diversification, but their link to speciation continues to be debated. Antarctic teleost fish of the family Notothenii...

    Authors: Juliette Auvinet, Paula Graça, Agnès Dettai, Angel Amores, John H. Postlethwait, H. William Detrich III, Catherine Ozouf-Costaz, Olivier Coriton and Dominique Higuet

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:39

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Most cinquefoils (Potentilla L., Rosaceae) are polyploids, ranging from tetraploid (4x) to dodecaploid (12x), diploids being a rare exception. Previous studies based on ribosomal and chloroplast data indicated th...

    Authors: Nannie L. Persson, Torsten Eriksson and Jenny E. E. Smedmark

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:38

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  38. Various ecological groups of earthworms very likely constitute sharply isolated niches that might permit speciation of their symbiotic ciliates, even though no distinct morphological features appear to be reco...

    Authors: Tomáš Obert and Peter Vďačný

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:37

    Content type: Research article

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  39. The family Aegisthidae is known as typical component of deep-sea hyperbenthic waters that gradually colonized other marine environments. The phylogenetic relationships within this family have been examined her...

    Authors: Sahar Khodami, Nancy F. Mercado-Salas and Pedro Martìnez Arbizu

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:36

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Human chromosome 19 has many unique characteristics including gene density more than double the genome-wide average and 20 large tandemly clustered gene families. It also has the highest GC content of any chro...

    Authors: R. Alan Harris, Muthuswamy Raveendran, Kim C. Worley and Jeffrey Rogers

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:33

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  41. Bird plumage exhibits a diversity of colors that serve functional roles ranging from signaling to camouflage and thermoregulation. However, birds must maintain a balance between evolving colorful signals to at...

    Authors: Jon T. Merwin, Glenn F. Seeholzer and Brian Tilston Smith

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:32

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

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