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Table 1 Eyestripe-size of male and female penduline tits.

From: Sexual conflict predicts morphology and behavior in two species of penduline tits

  Males (cm2) Females (cm2)   P d 1-β N required N d,1-β
EPT 1.29 ± 0.23 (N = 155) 0.93 ± 0.20 (N = 34) t = 8.419 <0.001 1.594 > 0.99   
CPT 0.13 ± 0.02 (N = 9) 0.14 ± 0.03 (N = 8) Z = 0.627 0.531 0.034 0.05 13581 8
  1. d = Cohen's effect size, 1-β = power. The sample size required for a statistically significant difference is provided for CPT given the effect size d of the underlying data of CPT and the power 1-β set at 0.8 (Nrequired), and given the effect size d in EPT and the power 1-β set at 0.80 (Nd,1-β) (see [70]).