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  1. Distant hybridization between the sea urchin Heliocidaris crassispina (♀) and the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius (♂) was successfully performed under laboratory conditions. A new variety of hybrid sea ...

    Authors: Yaoyao Zhan, Jingxian Sun, Yingying Li, Dongyao Cui, Weijie Zhang, Limeng Yang and Yaqing Chang

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:101

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  2. Under the threat of climate change populations can disperse, acclimatise or evolve in order to avoid fitness loss. In light of this, it is important to understand neutral gene flow patterns as a measure of dis...

    Authors: Anna P. Muir, Stanislas F. Dubois, Rebecca E. Ross, Louise B. Firth, Antony M. Knights, Fernando P. Lima, Rui Seabra, Erwan Corre, Gildas Le Corguillé and Flavia L. D. Nunes

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:100

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  3. Many animals rely heavily on olfaction to navigate their environment. Among rodents, olfaction is crucial for a wide range of social behaviors. The vomeronasal olfactory system in particular plays an important...

    Authors: Caitlin H. Miller, Polly Campbell and Michael J. Sheehan

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:99

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  4. Convergent and parallel evolution provide unique insights into the mechanisms of natural selection. Some of the most striking convergent and parallel (collectively recurrent) amino acid substitutions in proteins ...

    Authors: Samuel H. A. von der Dunk and Berend Snel

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:98

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  5. Was there a mid-Cenozoic vertebrate extinction and recovery event in Madagascar and, if so, what are its implications for the evolution of lemurs? The near lack of an early and mid-Cenozoic fossil record on Ma...

    Authors: Laurie R. Godfrey, Karen E. Samonds, Justin W. Baldwin, Michael R. Sutherland, Jason M. Kamilar and Kristen L. Allfisher

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:97

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  6. Chloroplast genome sequence data is very useful in studying/addressing the phylogeny of plants at various taxonomic ranks. However, there are no empirical observations on the patterns, directions, and mutation...

    Authors: Wenpan Dong, Chao Xu, Jun Wen and Shiliang Zhou

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:96

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  7. Adaptive radiations are characterized by extreme and/or iterative phenotypic divergence; however, such variation does not accumulate evenly across an organism. Instead, it is often partitioned into sub-units, ...

    Authors: Andrew J. Conith, Michael R. Kidd, Thomas D. Kocher and R. Craig Albertson

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:95

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  8. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Diana Gabriela Hernández-Langford, María Elena Siqueiros-Delgado and Eduardo Ruíz-Sánchez

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:94

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:44

  9. The adaptive significance of phenotypic changes elicited by environmental conditions experienced early in life has long attracted attention in evolutionary biology. In this study, we used Drosophila melanogaster ...

    Authors: Peter Klepsatel, Diana Knoblochová, Thirnahalli Nagaraj Girish, Heinrich Dircksen and Martina Gáliková

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:93

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  10. Hypotrichia are a group with the most complex morphology and morphogenesis within the ciliated protists. The classification of Gastrostyla-like species, a taxonomically difficult group of hypotrichs with a common...

    Authors: Xiaoteng Lu, Yuanyuan Wang, Saleh A. Al-Farraj, Hamed El-Serehy, Jie Huang and Chen Shao

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:92

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  11. The SIAMESE (SIM) locus is a cell-cycle kinase inhibitor (CKI) gene that has to date been identified only in plants; it encodes a protein that promotes transformation from mitosis to endoreplication. Members of t...

    Authors: Zhengquan Zhang, Jianzhou Qu, Feifei Li, Silu Li, Shutu Xu, Renhe Zhang, Jiquan Xue and Dongwei Guo

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:91

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  12. Tumors are widely recognized to progress through clonal evolution by sequentially acquiring selectively advantageous genetic alterations that significantly contribute to tumorigenesis and thus are termned driv...

    Authors: Patrick Grossmann, Simona Cristea and Niko Beerenwinkel

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:89

    Content type: Methodology article

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  13. Old World porcupines (Family: Hystricidae) are the third-largest rodents and inhabit southern Europe, Asia, and most regions of Africa. They are a typical indicator of warm climate and their distribution is re...

    Authors: Guilian Sheng, Jiaming Hu, Haowen Tong, Bastien Llamas, Junxia Yuan, Xindong Hou, Shungang Chen, Bo Xiao and Xulong Lai

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:88

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  14. Although phylogenomic analyses are increasingly used to reveal evolutionary relationships among ciliates, relatively few nuclear protein-coding gene markers have been tested for their suitability as candidates...

    Authors: Qi Zhang, Jiahui Xu, Alan Warren, Ran Yang, Zhuo Shen and Zhenzhen Yi

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:86

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  15. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are involved in the active transportation of various endogenous or exogenous substances. Two ABCG2 gene subfamily members have been identified in birds. A detailed comparat...

    Authors: Shengchao Ma, Hehe Liu, Wenqiang Sun, Ahsan Mustafa, Yang Xi, Fajun Pu, Yanying Li, Chunchun Han, Lili Bai and He Hua

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:85

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  16. Diverse architectures of nervous systems (NSs) such as a plexus in cnidarians or a more centralized nervous system (CNS) in insects and vertebrates are present across Metazoa, but it is unclear what selection ...

    Authors: A. Sur, A. Renfro, P. J. Bergmann and N. P. Meyer

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:84

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  17. We have described the diversity of complete mtDNA sequences from ‘relic’ groups of the Russian Far East, primarily the Nivkhi (who speak a language isolate with no clear relatedness to any others) and Oroki of...

    Authors: Stanislav V. Dryomov, Elena B. Starikovskaya, Azhar M. Nazhmidenova, Igor V. Morozov and Rem I. Sukernik

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:83

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Quaternary climate fluctuations are an engine of biotic diversification. Global cooling cycles, such as the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), are known to have fragmented the ranges of higher-latitude fauna and flor...

    Authors: Kritika M. Garg, Balaji Chattopadhyay, Bonny Koane, Katerina Sam and Frank E. Rheindt

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:82

    Content type: Research article

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  19. The origin of turtles and crocodiles and their easily recognized body forms dates to the Triassic and Jurassic. Despite their long-term success, extant species diversity is low, and endangerment is extremely h...

    Authors: Timothy J. Colston, Pallavi Kulkarni, Walter Jetz and R. Alexander Pyron

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:81

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  20. Fangs are a putative key innovation that revolutionized prey capture and feeding in snakes, and – along with their associated venom phenotypes – have made snakes perhaps the most medically-significant vertebra...

    Authors: Erin P. Westeen, Andrew M. Durso, Michael C. Grundler, Daniel L. Rabosky and Alison R. Davis Rabosky

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:80

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  21. Metamorphosis remains one of the most complicated and poorly understood processes in insects. This is particularly so for the very dynamic transformations that take place within the pupal sheath of holometabol...

    Authors: Chenjing Zhao, Yuchen Ang, Mengqing Wang, Caixia Gao, Kuiyan Zhang, Chufei Tang, Xingyue Liu, Min Li, Ding Yang and Rudolf Meier

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:79

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  22. Tree squirrels (Sciuridae, Sciurini), in particular the highly diverse Neotropical lineages, are amongst the most rapidly diversifying branches of the mammal tree of life but also some of the least known. Negl...

    Authors: Edson Fiedler de Abreu-Jr, Silvia E. Pavan, Mirian T. N. Tsuchiya, Don E. Wilson, Alexandre R. Percequillo and Jesús E. Maldonado

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:77

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Poecilogony, the presence of two developmental modes in the same animal species, is a rare phenomenon. Few cases of poecilogony have been suggested for marine invertebrates including molluscs and even less sto...

    Authors: Benedikt Wiggering, Marco T. Neiber, Katharina Gebauer and Matthias Glaubrecht

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:76

    Content type: Research article

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  24. We hypothesize prebiotic evolution of self-replicating macro-molecules (Alberts, Molecular biology of the cell, 2015; Orgel, Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 39:99-123, 2004; Hud, Nat Commun 9:5171) favoured the cons...

    Authors: Hemachander Subramanian, Joel Brown and Robert Gatenby

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:75

    Content type: Research article

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  25. The New World Tropics has experienced a dynamic landscape across evolutionary history and harbors a high diversity of flora and fauna. While there are some studies addressing diversification in Neotropical ver...

    Authors: Melissa Sánchez-Herrera, Christopher D. Beatty, Renato Nunes, Camilo Salazar and Jessica L. Ware

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:74

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Small leucine-rich repeat protein (SLRP) family members contain conserved leucine-rich repeat motifs flanked by highly variable N- and C-terminal regions. Most class II and III SLRPs have tyrosine-rich N-termi...

    Authors: Morten M. Jensen and Henrik Karring

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:73

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  27. The remarkable abilities of the human brain are distinctive features that set us apart from other animals. However, our understanding of how the brain has changed in the human lineage remains incomplete, but i...

    Authors: Ming-Li Li, Hui Tang, Yong Shao, Ming-Shan Wang, Hai-Bo Xu, Sheng Wang, David M. Irwin, Adeniyi C. Adeola, Tao Zeng, Luonan Chen, Yan Li and Dong-Dong Wu

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:72

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  28. Disentangling the drivers of genetic differentiation is one of the cornerstones in evolution. This is because genetic diversity, and the way in which it is partitioned within and among populations across space...

    Authors: Antonio R. Castilla, Belén Méndez-Vigo, Arnald Marcer, Joaquín Martínez-Minaya, David Conesa, F. Xavier Picó and Carlos Alonso-Blanco

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:71

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  29. East African lake cichlids are one of the most impressive examples of an adaptive radiation. Independently in Lake Victoria, Tanganyika, and Malawi, several hundreds of species arose within the last 10 million...

    Authors: Luca Penso-Dolfin, Angela Man, Tarang Mehta, Wilfried Haerty and Federica Di Palma

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:69

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  30. Lipids contained in milk are an essential source of energy and structural materials for a growing neonate. Furthermore, lipids’ long-chain unsaturated fatty acid residues can directly participate in neonatal t...

    Authors: Aleksandra Mitina, Pavel Mazin, Anna Vanyushkina, Nikolay Anikanov, Waltraud Mair, Song Guo and Philipp Khaitovich

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:70

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  31. Mygalomorph spiders represent a diverse, yet understudied lineage for which genomic level data has only recently become accessible through high-throughput genomic and transcriptomic sequencing methods. The Aptost...

    Authors: Nicole L. Garrison, Michael S. Brewer and Jason E. Bond

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:68

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  32. Cysteine-RIch Secretory Proteins (CRISP) are expressed in the reproductive tract of mammalian males and are involved in fertilization and related processes. Due to their important role in sperm performance and...

    Authors: Lena Arévalo, Nicolás G. Brukman, Patricia S. Cuasnicú and Eduardo R. S. Roldan

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:67

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  33. Alternative splicing (AS) generates various transcripts from a single gene and thus plays a significant role in transcriptomic diversity and proteomic complexity. Alu elements are primate-specific transposable el...

    Authors: Se-Hee Choe, Sang-Je Park, Hyeon-Mu Cho, Hye-Ri Park, Ja-Rang Lee, Young-Hyun Kim and Jae-Won Huh

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:66

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  34. The latest advancements in DNA sequencing technologies have facilitated the resolution of the phylogeny of insects, yet parts of the tree of Holometabola remain unresolved. The phylogeny of Neuropterida has be...

    Authors: Alexandros Vasilikopoulos, Bernhard Misof, Karen Meusemann, Doria Lieberz, Tomáš Flouri, Rolf G. Beutel, Oliver Niehuis, Torsten Wappler, Jes Rust, Ralph S. Peters, Alexander Donath, Lars Podsiadlowski, Christoph Mayer, Daniela Bartel, Alexander Böhm, Shanlin Liu…

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:64

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  35. Local coexistence of distinct, genetically determined color morphs can be unstable and transitional. Stable, long-term coexistence requires some form of balancing selection to protect morphs from getting lost ...

    Authors: Holger Schielzeth and Petra Dieker

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:63

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  36. The Chengjiang biota is one of the most species-rich Cambrian Konservat-Lagerstätten, and preserves a community dominated by non-biomineralized euarthropods. However, several Chengjiang euarthropods have an un...

    Authors: Yu Liu, Javier Ortega-Hernández, Hong Chen, Huijuan Mai, Dayou Zhai and Xianguang Hou

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:62

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  37. Invasion of organisms into new ecosystems is increasingly common, due to the global trade in commodities. One of the most complex post-invasion scenarios occurs when an invasive species is related to a native ...

    Authors: Erick M. G. Cordeiro, Laura M. Pantoja-Gomez, Julia B. de Paiva, Antônio R. B. Nascimento, Celso Omoto, Andrew P. Michel and Alberto S. Correa

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:61

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  38. The black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae, Hermetia illucens) is renowned for its bioconversion ability of organic matter, and is the worldwide most widely used source of insect protein. Despite varying exten...

    Authors: Gunilla Ståhls, Rudolf Meier, Christoph Sandrock, Martin Hauser, Ljiljana Šašić Zorić, Elina Laiho, Andrea Aracil, Jovana Doderović, Rozane Badenhorst, Phira Unadirekkul, Nur Arina Binte Mohd Adom, Leo Wein, Cameron Richards, Jeffery K. Tomberlin, Santos Rojo, Sanja Veselić…

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:60

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  39. Functional constraint through genomic architecture is suggested to be an important dimension of genome evolution, but quantitative evidence for this idea is rare. In this contribution, existing evidence and di...

    Authors: Katharina C. Wollenberg Valero

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:58

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  40. Amino acid substitution models play an important role in inferring phylogenies from proteins. Although different amino acid substitution models have been proposed, only a few were estimated from mitochondrial ...

    Authors: Huihui Chang, Yimeng Nie, Nan Zhang, Xue Zhang, Huimin Sun, Ying Mao, Zhongying Qiu and Yuan Huang

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:57

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  41. Amylase gene clusters have been implicated in adaptive copy number changes in response to the amount of starch in the diet of humans and mammals. However, this interpretation has been questioned for humans and...

    Authors: Miriam Linnenbrink, Kristian K. Ullrich, Ellen McConnell and Diethard Tautz

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:56

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  42. Meiosis is essential for sexual reproduction and generates genetically diverse haploid gametes from a diploid germ cell. Reduction of ploidy depends on active chromosome movements during early meiotic prophase...

    Authors: Irene da Cruz, Céline Brochier-Armanet and Ricardo Benavente

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:55

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  43. Ever since Darwin, evolutionary biologists have studied sexual selection driving differences in appearance and behaviour between males and females. An unchallenged paradigm in such studies is that one sex (usu...

    Authors: Ke Gao, Michiel van Wijk, Zoe Clement, Martijn Egas and Astrid T. Groot

    Citation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 2020 20:53

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

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