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Table 4 List of time constraints used in divergence time estimation

From: Evolutionary history of anglerfishes (Teleostei: Lophiiformes): a mitogenomic perspective

Node Constraints a Calibration information
A U 472 The minimum age for the basal split of bony fish based on the earliest known acanthodian remains from Late Ordovician [88]
  L 419 The †Psarolepis fossil (sarcopterygian [89]) from Ludlow (Silurian) [90]
B U 419 The minimum age for the Sarcopterygii/Actinopterygii split
  L 392 The †Moythomasia fossil (actinopteran) from the Givetian/Eifelian boundary [90]
C U 392 The minimum age for the Polypteriformes/Actinopteri split
  L 345 The †Cosmoptychius fossil (neopterygian or actinopteran) from Tournasian [90]
D L 130 The †Protopsephurus fossil (Polyodontidae) from Hauterivian (Cretaceous) [90]
E L 284 The †Brachydegma fossil (stem amiids) from Artinskian (Permian) [90]
F L 136 The †Yanbiania fossil (Hiodontidae) from the Lower Cretaceous [90]
G L 112 The †Laeliichthys fossil (Osteoglossidae) from the Aptian (Cretaceous) [91]
H L 151 The †Anaethalion, †Elopsomolos, and †Eoprotelops fossil (Elopomorpha) from Kimmeridgian (Jurassic) [90]
I L 94 The †Lebonichthys (Albulidae) fossil from the Cenomanian (Cretaceous) [91]
J L 49 The Conger (Congridae) and Anguilla (Anguillidae) fossils from the Ypresian (Tertiary) [91]
K L 146 The †Tischlingerichthys fossil (Ostariophysi) from Tithonian (Jurassic) [90]
L L 56 The †Knightia fossil (Clupeidae) from the Thanetian (Tertiary) [91]
M L 49 The †Parabarbus fossil (Cyprinidae) from the Ypresian (Tertiary) [91]
N L 74 The †Esteseox foxi fossil (Esociformes) from the Campanian (Cretaceous) [92]
O L 94 The †Berycopsis fossil (Polymixiidae) from the Cenomanian (Cretaceous) [91]
P L 50 The pleuronectiform fossil from the Ypresian (Tertiary) [91]
Q L 98 The tetraodontiform fossil from the Cenomanian [83]
R L 32 The estimated divergence time between Takifugu and Tetraodon [93]
S U 95 L 85 The upper and lower bounds of separation between Madagascar and Indian [85, 86, 94]
T U 145 L 112 The upper and lower bounds of separation between Indo-Madagascar landmass and Gondwanaland [85, 86, 94]
U U 120 L 100 The upper and lower bounds of separation between African and South American landmasses [85, 86]
V L 40 The lophiid fossil from Lutetian (Eocene) [95]
W L 40 The Brachionichthys fossil from Lutetian (Eocene) [28, 34, 95]
X L 40 The ogcocephalid fossil from Lutetian (Eocene) [95]
Y L 7.6 The ceratioid fossil from upper Mohnian [38]
  1. a U and L indicate maximum and minimum time constrains in million years (Myr), respectively (see Figure 9 for corresponding nodes).