Genetic diversity and differentiation among Scandinavian M. arion populations. a) Two measures of genetic diversity, expected heterozygosity (open circles) and allelic richness (closed circles), were estimated from genotype data of eight microsatellite loci (mean ± SE). Allelic richness differed significantly among populations (One-way ANOVA, F6,55 = 3.98, P < 0.01). Levels not connected with the same letter are significantly different according to post-hoc Tykey-Kramer HSD. Private allele numbers are given as diamonds. b) Pairwise genetic distances (F
) among the seven contemporary study populations. Figures in bold are significant after standard Bonferroni correction (P < 0.05).