Geographic pattern of genetic variation in Zootoca vivipara . (A) Frequency of mtDNA haplotypes (concatenated ND2 and cyt-b sequences) per locality. The size of each pie graph is proportional to the sample size at each locality (see Table 1). Colours correspond to the major clades from the phylogenetic tree on Figure 1. In the French Pyrenees population six haplotypes with a frequency of one are unlabelled: S1L, YL and ZN (green tones) and AD, AE and DA (blue tones). (B) Genetic variation in genome-wide AFLP markers. Each pie represents the posterior probabilities of assignment to four main genetic clusters (K = 4) obtained from Structure 3.1, averaged across individuals at each locality. The size of each pie graph is proportional to sample size. Black dots represent sampling localities, and white frames represent areas including several localities, shown in detail on Figure 3. The dashed contour line represents the approximate distribution range of the species in this region.