Divergence time estimates (X-axis, in millions of years) and biogeographic reconstructions for the six-area model for Campanulidae. The constrained maximum-likelihood biogeographic model included four areas corresponding to Gondwanan landmasses: South America (SA, green), South Africa (SAfr, orange), Madagascar (MAD, purple), and Australasia, including New Guinea, New Caledonia, Tasmania and New Zealand (AGC, dark blue). We included two “northern” regions: Holarctic (HOL, yellow) and Southeast Asia (SEA, magenta). Of the three coding strategies used (see Methods), we depict here the results based on the “ancestral inference” strategy. The ancestral range shown at each internal node (colored boxes) are the reconstructed scenarios with the highest composite Akaike weight obtain analyses conducted on 1000 randomly chosen trees from the posterior distribution of dated phylogenies. The three barplots show the three biogeographic scenarios with the highest composite Akaike weight (w
) for the origin of Campanulidae, Apiidae, and Dipsapiidae. Para = Paracyphiaceae; Brun. = Bruniales; Escallon. = Escalloniaceae.