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Table 1 Effects of introduced fish on morphological and life-history traits.

From: Rapid evolution in response to introduced predators I: rates and patterns of morphological and life-history trait divergence

  Lake type    
Trait Fishless (SE) Fish (SE) N F p-value
Sb 0.770 (0.010) 0.740 (0.008) 121 5.33 0.0228
Sm 1.952 (0.021) 1.728 (0.021) 120 58.40 < 0.0001
S1 2.119 (0.025) 1.872 (0.025) 116 47.90 < 0.0001
S2 2.234 (0.028) 1.981 (0.030) 102 39.12 < 0.0001
S3 2.363 (0.033) 2.048 (0.032) 82 45.73 < 0.0001
C1 3.802 (0.261) 3.318 (0.272) 111 1.65 0.2015
C2 5.707 (0.522) 4.999 (0.569) 93 0.84 0.3621
C3 7.615 (0.680) 5.408 (0.712) 81 5.03 0.0279
OS1 0.782 (0.007) 0.723 (0.007) 109 34.85 < 0.0001
OS2 0.795 (0.007) 0.739 (0.008) 92 26.63 < 0.0001
OS3 0.786 (0.008) 0.728 (0.009) 79 24.15 < 0.0001
Am 10.676 (0.277) 9.741 (0.256) 108 6.15 0.0148
A1 14.893 (0.300) 13.963 (0.282) 105 5.10 0.0261
A2 19.246 (0.320) 17.748 (0.311) 93 11.29 0.0012
A3 23.152 (0.362) 22.042 (0.334) 77 5.08 0.0274
GRj 0.090 (0.003) 0.088 (0.003) 107 0.31 0.5801
GR1 0.020 (0.002) 0.019 (0.002) 116 0.11 0.7359
GR2 0.013 (0.001) 0.014 (0.002) 100 0.12 0.7289
GR3 0.010 (0.002) 0.010 (0.002) 78 0.00 0.9916
GRa 0.012 (0.001) 0.012 (0.001) 81 0.00 0.9916
  1. Results of one-way mixed model NANOVAs with lake type (fishless and fish) and population nested within lake type as fixed effects. Least-squared means and associated standard errors are given for 19 morphological and life-history traits related to body size, clutch size, instar-specific ages, and instar-specific growth rates (see text for explanation of the trait designations). Number of observations (N), F statistic (F) and p-values for the main effect of lake type (significant values in bold).