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Table 2 Morphological features of warnowiid dinoflagellate genera.

From: Molecular phylogeny of ocelloid-bearing dinoflagellates (Warnowiaceae) as inferred from SSU and LSU rDNA sequences

  Nematodinium 1 Proterythropsis 2 Warnowia 3 Erythropsidinium 4 Greuetodinium 5
ocelloid      
position in the cell posterior posterior ~cell middle or posterior anterior Anterior
directed ventral ventral ventral to anteriorly anteriorly Anteriorly
relative size small small medium large very large
# constriction rings 1 ? 2 3 ?
'pigment ring' band, continuity with upper retinal body ? ring, isolated from retinal body ring, totally independent from retinal body ?
# per cell 1 1 1 1 (or 2*) ~15 lenses
  integrate type integrate type integrate type integrate type composite type
nematocysts yes (and no, see Hulburt 1957 yes (and no, see Kofoid & Swezy 1921) no no (but see Hertwig 1884) no
feeding apparatus ? ? ? stomopharyngian complex ?
chloroplasts yes and no no no (but see Hulburt 1957) no no
nucleus position upper cell half upper cell half middle or upper cell half right upper cell half median upper cell half
acrobase outward left spiral, 1 turn (or little more) = loop in Gymn. s.s. outward left spiral, 1 turn (or little more) = loop in Gymn. s.s. inward left spiral, 1.5–2.0 turns, some species plus outward left spiral angled left 'spiral', 2 turns ? (ventral below the cingulum)
cingulum ~1.5–2.25 turns ~1.25–2.0 turns ~1.0–2.5 turns 1.5 turns 1 turn, steep descending dorsally
sulcus < 1–2.0 turns < 1 turn 0.5–1.75 turns straight nearly one turn
cell 'extension' (tentacle) no yes no no ? maybe
piston non non non 1 (seldom 2*) 1
terminal stylet - - - sometimes ?
  1. 1 [24, 29, 3437, 42, 43, 47, 49]; 2 [36, 38], present study;3 [24, 29, 36, 37, 45]; 4 [24, 29, 30, 36, 37, 4446, 48, 5052]; 5 [53]; * [30]; ? = no data; Gymn. s.s. = Gymnodinium sensu stricto.