A schematic representation of eukaryotic phylogeny. The current consensus phylogeny and rooting of eukaryotes based on previous studies [4, 23, 40]. Arrows and stars indicate plastid acquisition via endosymbiosis and alternative hypothetical time points which primary endosymbiosis occurred, respectively. The root of the eukaryotic tree on the unikonts/bikonts boundary is hypothesized, but still controversial [5, 7–9, 19]. Archaeplastida are represented as a monophyletic group, but see also .