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Table 5 Results of pairwise MANOVAs for first lumbar vertebra on PCs 1 through 5, which collectively represent 92.0% of the total shape variance

From: The ancestral shape hypothesis: an evolutionary explanation for the occurrence of intervertebral disc herniation in humans

  Pathological humans Orangutans Chimpanzees
Healthy humans λ 0.781 F = 2.744 p = 0.029* λ 0.409 F = 11.854 p < 0.0001* λ 0.723 F = 4.513 p = 0.002*
Chimpanzees λ 0.892 F = 1.113 p = 0.367 λ 0.640 F = 4.277 p = 0.003*  
Orangutans λ 0.445 F = 6.985 p < 0.0001*   
  1. *indicates significant value.