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Table 1 Species concepts and their implementation

From: Extensive range overlap between heliconiine sister species: evidence for sympatric speciation in butterflies?

Species concept Definition Practical implementation Reference
Strict biological Species are characterised by near complete reproductive isolation. Semi-species which hybridise freely are lumped. [41]
Relaxed biological Species are characterised by substantial but not necessarily complete reproductive isolation. Semi-species given full species status, c.f. current heliconiine taxonomy. [42]
Genotypic cluster Species are delimited by the presence of gaps between clusters of multilocus genotypes within a local area. Semi-species given full species status. [44]
Diagnostic phylogenetic Taxa differing at fixed, diagnostic traits are given species status. Current heliconiine subspecies raised to species status. [56]