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Table 2 Generalized estimating equations (A) and REML mixed models (B) investigating the factors that affected male competition (measured during Focal Follows)

From: Females sample more males at high nesting densities, but ultimately obtain less attractive mates

A.
Behaviour Fixed effect Wald Chi-Square df P
Competition received Male Density 0.28 1 0.59
  Day of Season 16.84 3 <0.01
  Nesting Status 0.05 1 0.83
Competition initiated Male Density 0.92 1 0.34
  Day of Season 6.61 3 0.08
  Nesting Status 4.38 1 0.04
B.     
Behaviour Fixed Effect F df P
Number of behaviours received Male Density 0.43 1, 31.94 0.51
  Day of Season 5.69 1, 27.51 0.02
  Nesting Status 0.10 1, 109.9 0.76
Number of behaviours initiated Male Density 0.01 1, 32.2 0.91
  Day of Season 4.51 1, 25.23 0.04
  Nesting Status 1.00 1, 114 0.32
Competition score Male Density 0.21 1, 33.07 0.65
  Day of Season 0.08 1, 30.12 0.78
  Nesting Status 8.85 1, 107.8 <0.01
Number of competitors Male Density 0.61 1, 31.8 0.44
  Day of Season 8.81 1, 29.2 <0.01
  Nesting Status 3.19 1, 106.4 0.08
  1. GEEs investigated competition received (males receiving vs. not receiving aggression from non-focal males) and competition initiated (males initiating vs. not initiating competition with non-focal males), and REML mixed models investigated the sum number of behaviours initiated and received, how far competition escalated (the competition score), and the number of males physically competing. In the GEEs, we treated time as a categorical variable with four levels (dividing the season into 2 week blocks) because of lost degrees of freedom. In all other models, day of season was a continuous variable. Replicate pool was a random effect in all models and significant results are indicated in bold