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Fig. 1 | BMC Evolutionary Biology

Fig. 1

From: Computer simulation of human leukocyte antigen genes supports two main routes of colonization by human populations in East Asia

Fig. 1

Topographic map of East Asia showing hypothesized modern human migration routes and suggested barriers. Northern and Southern routes are represented by green and red arrows, respectively, while the two contact zones are marked in purple. Triangles indicate representative Upper Paleolithic archeological sites with human remains: a. Mal’ta; b. Afontova Gora-2; c. Upper Cave; d. Tianyuan Cave; e. Liujiang; f. Chochen; g. Minatogawa; h. Niah Cave and points indicate modern populations samples for HLA−A, −B, −DRB1 loci: 1. Tuvinians; 2. Oold; 3. Khalkha; 4. Mongolians; 5. Liaoning Han; 6. Shanxi Han; 7. Shandong Han; 8. Xi’an Han; 9. Henan Han; 10. Anhui Han; 11. Hubei Han; 12. Zhejiang Han; 13. Hunan Han; 14. Jiangxi Han; 15. Fujian Han; 16. Maonan; 17. Guangdong Han; 18. Zhuang; 19. Muong (see Additional file 1: Table S1 and Additional file 2: Table S2)

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