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Fig. 3 | BMC Evolutionary Biology

Fig. 3

From: With a little help from my friends: cooperation can accelerate the rate of adaptive valley crossing

Fig. 3

Cooperation and migration affect complex adaptation in subdivided populations. (a, d) The waiting time for the first appearance of a double mutant; (b, e) Fixation probability of a double mutant after appearance; and (c, f) Total adaptation time are plotted as functions of migration rate and cooperation levels. Dots show results averaged over ≥10,000 simulations for panels a,b,c and ≥50,000 simulations for d,e,f; bars show standard error of the mean. Additional parameter values: r = 0.01 , n = 1,000 , k = 10 , μ = 10−5 , s = 0.05 , H = 5. (a, b, c) b = 1.2, (d, e, f) m = 0.01

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