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Table 1 Evolutionary rate, disparity, and integration and allometric, phylogenetic, and ecological signal in caecilian cranial modules

From: Morphological evolution and modularity of the caecilian skull

Module Rate σ2mult (×10−8) Disparity (Procrustes variance) (× 10− 6) Within-module correlation Evolutionary allometry (R2) Phylogenetic signal (Kmult) Phylogenetic signal (Kmult), excluding Atretochoana Fossoriality phylogenetic ANOVA (R2)
Frontal 1.33 6.32 0.70 0.05 0.87*** 1.02*** 0.05*/
Parietal 1.67 8.43 0.71 0.22*** 1.05*** 1.32*** 0.10***/**
Nasopremaxilla (dorsal) 1.19 5.86 0.49 0.06* 0.93*** 0.97*** 0.03/
Maxillopalatine 1.64 7.84 0.50 0.19*** 0.93*** 0.97*** 0.05**/*
Occipital 1.25 4.71 0.73 0.37*** 0.66 0.75** 0.03/
Quadrate-Squamosal 2.73 10.24 0.71 0.21*** 0.72* 1.12*** 0.06*/*
Ventral os basale-vomer 0.91 4.97 0.46 0.12** 0.99*** 1.03*** 0.04/
Nasopremaxilla (palatal) 0.97 5.51 0.79 0.11* 1.16*** 1.20*** 0.06*/
Pterygoid 1.65 10.60 0.78 0.11* 1.13*** 1.21*** 0.01/
Stapes 1.28 4.76 0.87 0.19*** 0.70* 1.05*** 0.03/
  1. Results for the ten identified cranial modules, where the within-module correlations are taken from EMMLi analysis using phylogenetically-corrected data. Significance of results for the last four columns is as follows: p values significant at the following alpha levels: * ≤ 0.05, ** ≤ 0.01, *** ≤ 0.001. Significance for differences in module shape related to fossoriality is before/after multiple-test correction. (See Fig. 1 for module definitions)