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Table 1 Model parameters and support estimated on 50 rescaled trees (mean value ± standard deviation). White noise was fitted with geiger, OU was fitted with mvMORPH. For all the other models, the log-likelihood (lnL) and parameters of all other fitted models were practically identical between geiger and mvMORPH; the mvMORPH results are shown here. θ0, root state; trend, trend parameters. See the methods section for explanation of the other parameters

From: On trends and patterns in macroevolution: Williston’s law and the branchiostegal series of extant and extinct osteichthyans

  θ0 θ1 σ2 β α trend lnL AIC Akaike weight
BM 5.55 ± 0.09 100.73 ± 7.23 − 1374.41 ± 17.90 2752.83 2.45 × 10−53
EB 5.80 ± 0.09 4708.20 ± 1453.58 −5.04 ± 0.30 − 1252.25 ± 16.82 2510.55 1.00
OU 5.18 ± 0.14 7.49 ± 0.17 141.84 ± 15.30 2.98 ± 0.44 − 1350.80 ± 12.42 2709.67 5.80 × 10−44
Trend 5.60 ± 0.11 100.71 ± 7.24 −0.75 ± 0.62 −1374.35 ± 17.85 2754.75 9.40 × 10−54
White noise 7.48 ± 0.00 18.05 ± 0.00 − 1449.92 ± 0.00 2903.84 3.97 × 10−86