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Table 3 Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA, 3-level) including both flat periwinkle species, after grouping populations by species

From: Phylogeographic history of flat periwinkles, Littorina fabalis and L. obtusata

StructureMarkerSource of variationd.f.Variance components% Variationφ-statisticsp-value
L. obtusata by pop
CalAmong species12.454664.220.64220.0000
Among populations within species200.486812.740.35600.0000
Within populations2300.880823.040.76960.0000
Group 2
L. fabalis by pop
ThioAmong species13.213570.580.70580.0000
Among populations within species230.690815.170.51570.0000
Within populations3770.648814.250.85750.0000
mtDNA-NOINTAmong species13.596039.560.39560.0000
Among populations within species223.993643.300.71650.0000
Within populations2531.557617.140.82860.0000
  1. φ-statistics presented in the following order: ΦCT (up), ΦSC (middle) and ΦST (low)
  2. d.f. degrees of freedom
  3. mtDNA–NOINT mtDNA after removing putatively introgressed individuals